• D. Monaco Department of Emergency and Organ Transplantation (D.E.T.O.), Veterinary Clinics and Animal Production Section, University of Bari Aldo Moro, Valenzano (Bari), Italy
  • B. Padalino Department of Veterinary Medicine, University of Bari, Valenzano (Bari), Italy
  • G. M. Lacalandra Department of Emergency and Organ Transplantation (D.E.T.O.), Veterinary Clinics and Animal Production Section, University of Bari Aldo Moro, Valenzano (Bari), Italy


Female dromedary camel are seasonal breeders and induced ovulators therefore the follicular wave pattern differs from that of other domestic animals and notably it is composed of recruitment phase, growth phase, mature phase and regression phase. Ultrasonography allows a more clear determination of the ovarian activity. The optimum time for inducing ovulation, either with GnRH or hCG, is when the dominant follicle diameter measures between 13 and 18 mm. The semen should be deposited into the uterus at least 24 hours after induction of ovulation. Pregnancy rates depend on the number of sperm deposited and on the site of deposition as well as on the semen extender. The corpus luteum start developing two-three days after the ovulating stimulus and, if the maternal recognition of the pregnancy does not occur, it is completely regressed the 13th day after it. The placenta of camelids is epitheliochorial and the pregnancy is located in the left uterine horn in 98% of the cases. Pregnancy could be diagnosed at 18 days, by ultrasonography, or later if diagnosed by rectal palpation of the uterus. The pregnancy lasts about 13 months and the uterine involution is completed within 40 days after parturition. After parturition, the period of resumption of the ovarian activity is variable.

Keywords: Dromedary camel, Female reproductive physiology, Artificial insemination


Abdel Rahim, S. E. A. and A. E. El Nazier. 1990.
Factors affecting camel reproductive
performance in the tropics. Proceeding of the
Workshop: Is it possible to improve the
reproductive performance of the camel?. ed.
Saint Martin. Paris 10-12 September.
Ahmed, M. S. H. 1990. Some studies on the
postpartum period in she camels. Camel News
Lett. 7:27.
Al-Eknah, M. M. and A. M. A. Ali. 2001.
Infundibular cyst jeopardize reproduction in
the camel (Camelus dromedarius). Emir. J.
Agric. Sci. 13:52-56.
Arthur, G. H. 1992. An overview of reproduction in
the camelids. In: Proceedings of 1st
International Camel Conference. R & W
Publications (Newmarket) Ltd., UK, pp. 109- 115. Arthur, G. H. and A. T. Al-Rahim. 1982. Aspects
of reproduction in the female camel in Saudi
Arabia. Vet. Med. Rev. 1:83-88.
Arthur, G. H., A. T. Rahim and A. S. Al-Hindi.
1985. Reproduction and genital desease of
camel. Br. Vet. J. 141:650-659.
El-Bahrawy, K. A. 2010. Cryopreservation of
dromedary camel semen supplemented with α- amylase enzyme. J. Cam. Pract. Res. 17:211- 216.
Elias, E. and D. Cohen. 1996. Parturition in the
camel and some behavioral aspects of the
newborn. Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 84A:413- 419.
Fatnassi M., B. Padalino, D. Monaco, T.
Khorchani, G. M. Lacalandra and M.
Hammadi. 2014. Evaluation of sexual
behavior of housed male camels (Camelus
dromedarius) through female parades:
correlation with climatic parameters. Trop.
Anim. Health Prod. 46:313-321.
Hafez, A. S. A. 1955. Fetal maternal attachment in
the buffalo and camel. Indian. J. Vet. Sci.
Manjunatha, B. M., N. Pratap, S. Al-Bulushi, and
B. E. Hago. 2012. Characterization of ovarian
follicular dynamics in dromedary camels
(Camelus dromedarius). Theriogenology
Manjunatha, B. M., N. Pratap and B. E. Hago.
Acquisition of ovulatory capacity in camel
(Camelus dromedarius) follicles. http://www. camelidconference.com/resources/dyn/files/19
Marie, M. and A. Anouassi. 1987. Induction of
luteal activity and progesterone secretion in
Emir. J. Food Agric. 2015. 27 (4): 328-337
the non-pregnant one-humped camel (Camelus
dromedarius) J. Reprod. Fertil. 80:183-192.
Matharu, B. S. 1966. Camel care. Indian Farming. 16:19-22.
Minoia, P., M. Moslah, G. M. Lacalandra, T.
Korchani and A. Zarrilli. 1992. Induction of
oestrus and Management of reproduction in
the female dromedary camel. In: Proceedings
of 1st International Camel Conference. R & W
Publications (Newmarket) Ltd., UK, pp. 173- 174
Morton, K. M., M. Billah and J. A. Skidmore.
2010. Artificial insemination of dromedary
camels with fresh and chilled semen: effect of
diluent and sperm dose, preliminary results.
Proceedings of the Eighth International
Symposium on Reproduction in Domestic
Ruminants. Nottingham University press
United Kingdom. p. 493.
Morton, K. M., M. Billah and J. A. Skidmore.
2011. Effect of green buffer storage on the
fertility of fresh camel semen after artificial
insemination. Reprod. Domest. Anim. 46:554- 7.
Moslah, M. and F. Megdiche. 1989. L’elevage
cameline en Tunisie. Options
méditerranéennes serie A n°. 2:33-36.
Musa, B. E. and M. E. Abusineina. 1978. Clinical
Pregnancy in the camel and a comparison with
bovine pregnancy. Vet. Rec. 102:7-10.
Nagy, P. and J. Juhasz. 2008. Effect of different
GnRH analogue and follicular size on
ovulation and CL development in dromedary
camels (Camelus dromedarius). Proceedings
of 16th International Congress on Animal
Reproduction (ICAR). p 95.
Nagy, P. and J. Juhasz. 2012a. Environmental
factors affecting reproduction in dromedary
camels (Camelus dromedarius). Proceedings
of the ICAR satellite meeting on Camelid
reproduction. Publisher International
Veterinary Information Service (IVIS), Ithaca
New York, USA. P 3-8.
Nagy, P. and J. Juhasz. 2012b. Fertility after
ovarian follicular wave synchronization and
fixed-time natural mating compared to random
natural mating in dromedary camels (Camelus
dromedarius). Anim. Repr. Sci. 132:223- 230.
Shalash, M.R. 1965. Some reproductive aspects in
the female camel. Wld. Rev. Anim. Prod.
Padalino B., L. Aube’, M. Fatnassi, D. Monaco, T.
Khorchani, M. Hammadi and G. M.
Lacalandra. 2014. Could Dromedary Camels
Develop Stereotypy? The First Description of
Stereotypical Behaviour in Housed Male
Dromedary Camels and How It Is Affected by
Different Management Systems. PLOS One
Skidmore, J. A. 1994. Reproduction in the
dromedary camel. Ph.D. Thesis. University of
Cambridge, UK.
Skidmore, J. A. 2000. Reproductive Physiology in
Male and Female Camels. In: Recent
Advances in Camelid Reproduction.
Publisher: International Veterinary
Information Service (www.ivis.org) Ithaca,
New York.
Skidmore, J. A. 2003. The main challenges facing
camel reproduction research in the 21st
century. Reprod. Suppl. 61:37-47.
Skidmore, J. A. 2011. Reproductive physiology in
female Old World Camelids. Anim. Reprod.
Sci. 124:148-54.
Skidmore, J. A. and M. Billah. 2006a. Investigation
of the most appropriate time for insemination
of female camels (Camelus dromedarius) after
GnRH injection and comparison of pregnancy
rates after deep intra-uterine versus cervical
insemination. In: Proceedings of First
Conference of International Society of
Camelids Research and Development
(ISOCARD), p. 54.
Skidmore J. A. and M. Billah. 2006b. Comparison
of pregnancy rates in dromedary camels
(Camelus dromedarius) after deep intra- uterine versus cervical insemination.
Theriogenol. 66:292-296
Skidmore, J. A., M. Billah and W. R. Allen. 1996.
The ovarian follicular wave pattern and
induction of ovulation in the mated and non- mated one humped camel. J. Reprod. Fertil.
Skidmore, J. A., G. P. Adams and M. Billah. 2009.
Synchronisation of ovarian follicular waves in
the dromedary camel (Camelus dromedarius).
Anim. Reprod. Sci. 114:249-255.
Skidmore, J. A., K. M. Morton and M. Billah.
2013. Artificial insemination in dromedary
camels. Anim. Reprod. Sci. 136:178-186.
D. Monaco et al.
Skidmore J. A., G. R. Starbuck, G. E. Lamming and
W. R. Allen. 1998. Control of luteolysis in the
one humped camel (Camelus dromedarius). J.
Reprod. Fertil. 114:201-209.
Tibary, A. and A. Anouassi. 1997. Reproductive
physiology in the female camelidae. In:
Theriogenology in camelidae: anatomy,
physiology, pathology and artificial breeding.
IAVH II. Rabat, Morocco. p. 169-241.
Tibary, A. and A. Anouassi. 1996.
Ultrasonographic changes of the reproductive
tract in the female camel (Camelus
dromedarius) during the follicular cycle and
pregnancy. J. Cam. Pract. Res. 3:71-90.
Tibary, A. and A. Anouassi. 2000. Ultrasonography
of the genital tract in camels (Camelus
dromedarius and Camelus bactrianus), In: T.
K. Ghalot (Ed.), pp. 431-465. Selected topics
on camelids, Bikaner, India.
Tinson, A. H. and A. O. McKinnon. 1992.
Ultrasonography of the reproductive tract of
the female dromedary camel. In: Proceedings
of 1st International Camel Conference. R & W
Publications (Newmarket) Ltd., UK, pp. 129- 135.
Van Lennep, E. W. 1961. The histology of the
placenta of the one-humped camel (Camelus
dromedarius) during the first half of
pregnancy. Acta Morphl. Neerl. Sc. 4:180- 193.
Vyas, S. and M. S. Sahani. 2000. Real-time
ultrasonography of ovaries and breeding of the
one-humped camel (Camelus dromedarius)
during the early postpartum period. Anim.
Reprod. Sci. 59:179-184.
Vyas, S., G. N. Purohit, P. K. Pareek and M. S.
Sahani. 2002. Ultrasonographic imaging to
monitor early pregnancy in the camel
(Camelus dromedarius). Revue Élev. Méd.
vét. Pays trop. 55:241-245.
Wilson, R. T. 1984. The Camel. Ed. Longmans,
London, p. 83-101.
Wilson, R. T. 1986. Reproductive performance and
survival of young one-humped camels on
Kenya commercial ranches. Anim. Prod.
32 Views | 39 Downloads
How to Cite
Monaco, D., B. Padalino, and G. Lacalandra. “DISTINCTIVE FEATURES OF FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE PHYSIOLOGY AND ARTIFICIAL INSEMINATION IN THE DROMEDARY CAMEL SPECIES”. Emirates Journal of Food and Agriculture, Vol. 27, no. 4, May 2015, pp. 328-37, doi:https://doi.org/10.9755/ejfa.v27i4.19904. Accessed 21 Mar. 2019.
Review Article