DISTINCTIVE FEATURES OF FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE PHYSIOLOGY AND ARTIFICIAL INSEMINATION IN THE DROMEDARY CAMEL SPECIES

  • D. Monaco Department of Emergency and Organ Transplantation (D.E.T.O.), Veterinary Clinics and Animal Production Section, University of Bari Aldo Moro, Valenzano (Bari), Italy
  • B. Padalino Department of Veterinary Medicine, University of Bari, Valenzano (Bari), Italy
  • G. M. Lacalandra Department of Emergency and Organ Transplantation (D.E.T.O.), Veterinary Clinics and Animal Production Section, University of Bari Aldo Moro, Valenzano (Bari), Italy

Abstract

Female dromedary camel are seasonal breeders and induced ovulators therefore the follicular wave pattern differs from that of other domestic animals and notably it is composed of recruitment phase, growth phase, mature phase and regression phase. Ultrasonography allows a more clear determination of the ovarian activity. The optimum time for inducing ovulation, either with GnRH or hCG, is when the dominant follicle diameter measures between 13 and 18 mm. The semen should be deposited into the uterus at least 24 hours after induction of ovulation. Pregnancy rates depend on the number of sperm deposited and on the site of deposition as well as on the semen extender. The corpus luteum start developing two-three days after the ovulating stimulus and, if the maternal recognition of the pregnancy does not occur, it is completely regressed the 13th day after it. The placenta of camelids is epitheliochorial and the pregnancy is located in the left uterine horn in 98% of the cases. Pregnancy could be diagnosed at 18 days, by ultrasonography, or later if diagnosed by rectal palpation of the uterus. The pregnancy lasts about 13 months and the uterine involution is completed within 40 days after parturition. After parturition, the period of resumption of the ovarian activity is variable.

Keywords: Dromedary camel, Female reproductive physiology, Artificial insemination

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How to Cite
Monaco, D., B. Padalino, and G. Lacalandra. “DISTINCTIVE FEATURES OF FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE PHYSIOLOGY AND ARTIFICIAL INSEMINATION IN THE DROMEDARY CAMEL SPECIES”. Emirates Journal of Food and Agriculture, Vol. 27, no. 4, May 2015, pp. 328-37, doi:https://doi.org/10.9755/ejfa.v27i4.19904. Accessed 23 May 2019.
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Review Article