HYGROSCOPIC, THERMAL AND CHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF CINNAMON ESSENTIAL OIL MICROPARTICLE OBTAINED BY SPRAY DRYING

  • Pedro Henrique Campelo Food Science Department, Federal University of Lavras, Lavras/MG, Brazil
  • Jayne de Abreu Figueiredo, Sra. Food Science Department, Federal University of Lavras, Lavras/MG, Brazil
  • Vany Ferraz Chemical Department, Federal University of Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte/MG, Brazil
  • Maria Irene Yoshida Chemical Department, Federal University of Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte/MG, Brazil
  • Regiane Victória de Barros Fernandes Food Science Department, Federal University of Lavras, Lavras/MG, Brazil
  • Diego Alvarenga Botrel Food Science Department, Federal University of Lavras, Lavras/MG, Brazil
  • Soraia Vilela Borges Food Science Department, Federal University of Lavras, Lavras/MG, Brazil

Abstract

This study aimed at evaluating the potential of gum arabic in combination with maltodextrin for the microencapsulation of cinnamon essential oil by spray drying to maximize its hygroscopic, thermal and chemical stability. The corresponding isotherm exhibited type II behavior (sigmoidal curve), and the best fit was obtained for the GAB model (E = 4.81%). Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) analysis showed that the increased moisture content caused a significant reduction of the glass transition temperature (Tg) of the microparticles. Microparticles stored at intermediate humidity exhibited thermal stability and a lower mass loss, while storing at low temperatures led to higher antioxidant capacity and cinnamaldehyde retention.

Keywords: Sorption isotherms, glass transition, cinnamon essential oil, antioxidant activity, gordon-taylor equation

References

Abd Ghani, A., Adachi, S, Shiga, H., Neoh, T. L., Adachi, S. and Yoshii H. 2017. Effect of different dextrose equivalents of maltodextrin on oxidation stability in encapsulated fish oil by spray drying. Biosci. Biotechnol. Biochem. 81:1–7
Akhavan Mahdavi, S., Jafari, S. M., Assadpoor, E. and Dehnad, D. 2016a. Microencapsulation optimization of natural anthocyanins with maltodextrin, gum Arabic and gelatin. Int. J. Biol. Macromol. 85: 379–385
Akhavan Mahdavi, S., Jafari, S. M., Assadpoor, E. and Ghorbani, M. 2016b. Storage stability of encapsulated barberry’s anthocyanin and its application in jelly formulation. J. Food Eng. 181: 59–66
Aniesrani Delfiya, D. S., Thangavel, K., Natarajan, N., Kasthuri, R. and Kailappan, R. 2015. Microencapsulation of Turmeric Oleoresin by Spray Drying and In Vitro Release Studies of Microcapsules. J. Food Process Eng. 38:37–48
Barbosa-Cánovas, G. V., Fontana, A. J., Schmidt, S. J. and Labuza, T. P. 2008. Water Activity in Foods. In Water Activity in Foods: Fundamentals and Applications. First Edition. 1–435. Oxford: Blackwell Publishing.
Bhandari, B. R., Dumoulin, E. D., Richard, H. M. J., Noleau, I. and Lebert, A. M. 1992. Flavor Encapsulation by Spray Drying: Application to Citral and Linalyl Acetate. J. Food. Sci. 57:217-221.
Botrel, D. A., de Barros Fernandes, R. V., Borges, S. V. and Yoshida, M. I. 2014. Influence of wall matrix systems on the properties of spray-dried microparticles containing fish oil. Food Res. Int. 62: 344–352
Cano-Higuita, D. M., Malacrida, C. R. and Telis, V. R. N. 2015. Stability of Curcumin Microencapsulated by Spray and Freeze Drying in Binary and Ternary Matrices of Maltodextrin, Gum Arabic and Modified Starch. J. Food Process. Preserv. 39: 2049–2060
Cardoso-Ugarte, G. A., López-Malo, A. and Sosa-Morales, M. E. 2016. Cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum) Essential Oil. In Essential Oils in Food Preservation, Flavor and Safety., 1 ed. VR Preedy, pp. 339–349. San Diego: Elsevier Inc.
Carrillo-Navas, H., González-Rodea, D. A., Cruz-Olivares, J., Barrera-Pichardo J. F., Román-Guerrero A. and Pérez-Alonso C. 2011. Storage stability and physicochemical properties of passion fruit juice microcapsules by spray-drying. Rev. Mex. Ing. Química. 10:421–430
Carvalho A. G. S., Machado, M. T. da C., Silva, V. M., Sartoratto, A., Rodrigues, R. A. and Hubinger, M. D. 2016. Physical properties and morphology of spray dried microparticles containing anthocyanins of jussara (Euterpe edulis Martius) extract. Powder Technol. 294:421–428
Choudhury, D., Sahu, J. K., Sharma, G. D. 2011. Moisture sorption isotherms, heat of sorption and properties of sorbed water of raw bamboo (Dendrocalamus longispathus) shoots. Ind. Crops Prod. 33: 211–216
Collares, F. P., Kieckbusch, T. G. and Finzer, J. R. D. 2002. Review : Glass Transition in Food Products. Brazilian J. Food Technol. 5: 117–130
Cortés-Rojas, D. F. and Oliveira, W. P. 2012. Physicochemical Properties of Phytopharmaceutical Preparations as Affected by Drying Methods and Carriers. Dry. Technol. 30: 921–934
Fang, Z. and Bhandari B. R. 2012. Comparing the efficiency of protein and maltodextrin on spray drying of bayberry juice. Food Res. Int. 48: 478–483
Felix, P. H. C., Birchal, V. S., Botrel, D. A., Marques, G. R. and Borges, S. V. 2016. Physicochemical and Thermal Stability of Microcapsules of Cinnamon Essential Oil by Spray Drying. J. Food Process. Preserv. 41: e12919
Fernandes, R. V. B., Borges, S. V., Botrel, D. A., Silva, E. K., Costa, J. M. G. and Queiroz F. 2013. Microencapsulation of Rosemary Essential Oil: Characterization of Particles. Dry. Technol. 31: 1245–1254
Ferrari, C. C., Germer, S. P. M., Alvim, I. D., Vissotto, F. Z. and de Aguirre, J. M. 2012. Influence of carrier agents on the physicochemical properties of blackberry powder produced by spray drying. Int. J. Food Sci. Technol. 47: 1237–1245
Ferrari, C. C., Marconi Germer, S. P., Alvim, I. D., de Aguirre, J. M. 2013. Storage Stability of Spray-Dried Blackberry Powder Produced with Maltodextrin or Gum Arabic. Dry. Technol. 31: 470–478
Gomes da Costa, J. M., Silva, E. K., Toledo Hijo, A. A. C., Azevedo, V. M. and Borges, S. V. 2015. Physical and Thermal Stability of Spray-Dried Swiss Cheese Bioaroma Powder. Dry. Technol. 33: 346–354
Goula, A. M. and Adamopoulos, K. G. 2012. A New Technique for Spray-Dried Encapsulation of Lycopene. Dry. Technol. 30: 641–652
Goula, A. M., Karapantsios, T. D., Achilias, D. S. and Adamopoulos, K. G. 2008. Water sorption isotherms and glass transition temperature of spray dried tomato pulp. J. Food Eng. 85: 73–83
Guan, Y. and Zhong, Q. 2015. The improved thermal stability of anthocyanins at pH 5.0 by gum arabic. LWT - Food Sci. Technol. 64: 706–712
Jeya-Kumari, A., Venkateshwarlu, G., Choukse, M. K. and Anandan, R. 2014. Effect of Essential Oil and Aqueous Extract of Ginger (Zingiber Officinale) on Oxidative Stability of Fish oil-in-Water Emulsion. J. Food Process. Technol. 6(1):1–5
Klein, T., Longhini, R., Bruschi, M. L. and de Mello, J. C. P. 2015. Microparticles containing guaraná extract obtained by spray-drying technique: development and characterization. Rev. Bras. Farmacogn. 25:292–300
Kuck, L. S. and Noreña, C. P. Z. 2016. Microencapsulation of grape (Vitis labrusca var. Bordo) skin phenolic extract using gum Arabic, polydextrose, and partially hydrolyzed guar gum as encapsulating agents. Food Chem. 194:569–576
Kurozawa, L. E., Park, K. J. and Hubinger, M. D. 2009. Effect of maltodextrin and gum arabic on water sorption and glass transition temperature of spray dried chicken meat hydrolysate protein. J. Food Eng. 92: 287–296
Lewicki, P. P. 1997. The applicability of the GAB model to food water sorption isotherms. Int. J. Food Sci. Technol. 32: 553–557
Lomauro, C. J., Bakshi, A. S. and Labuza, T. P. 1985. Evaluation of food moisture Sorption Isotherm Equations: Part I: Fruit, vegetable adn Meat Products. LWT. Food. Sci. Technol. 18: 111-117.
Mahdavee Khazaei, K., Jafari, S. M., Ghorbani, M. and Hemmati Kakhki, A. 2014. Application of maltodextrin and gum Arabic in microencapsulation of saffron petal’s anthocyanins and evaluating their storage stability and color. Carbohydr. Polym. 105: 57–62
Mahdavi, S. A., Jafari, S. M., Ghorbani, M, and Assadpoor, E. 2014. Spray-Drying Microencapsulation of Anthocyanins by Natural Biopolymers: A Review. Dry. Technol. 32: 509–518
Martins, I. M., Barreiro, M. F., Coelho, M. and Rodrigues, A. E. 2014. Microencapsulation of essential oils with biodegradable polymeric carriers for cosmetic applications. Chem. Eng. J. 245: 191–200
Matioli, G. and Rodriguez-Amaya, D. B. 2002. Lycopene encapsulated with Gum Arabic and Maltodextrin: Stability Study. Brazilian J. Food Technol. 5: 197–203
Mensor, L. L., Menezes, F. S., Leitão, G. G., Reis, A. S. and Santos, T. C. dos. 2001. Screening of Brazilian plant extracts for antioxidant activity by the use of DPPH free radical method. Phyther. Res. 15: 127–130
Moraga, G., Martínez-Navarrete, N. and Chiralt, A. 2004. Water sorption isotherms and glass transition in strawberries: Influence of pretreatment. J. Food Eng. 62: 315–321
Moraga, G., Martínez-Navarrete, N. and Chiralt, A. 2006. Water sorption isotherms and phase transitions in kiwifruit. J. Food Eng. 72: 147–156
Mosquera, L. H., Moraga, G. and Martínez-Navarrete, N. 2012. Critical water activity and critical water content of freeze-dried strawberry powder as affected by maltodextrin and arabic gum. Food Res. Int. 47: 201–206
Oliveira, M. I. S., Tonon, R. V., Nogueira, R. I. and Cabral, L. M. C. 2013. Stability of spray-dryed strawberry pulp produced with different carrier agents. Brazilian J. Food Technol. 16: 310–318
Pérez-Alonso, C., Cruz-Olivares, J., Barrera-Pichardo, J. F., Rodríguez-Huezo, M. E., Báez-González, J. G. and Vernon-Carter, E. J. 2008. DSC thermo-oxidative stability of red chili oleoresin microencapsulated in blended biopolymers matrices. J. Food Eng. 85: 613–624
Pitalua, E., Jimenez, M., Vernon-Carter, E. J. and Beristain, C. I. 2010. Antioxidative activity of microcapsules with beetroot juice using gum Arabic as wall material. Food Bioprod. Process. 88: 253–258
Rajabi, H., Ghorbani, M., Jafari, S. M., Sadeghi Mahoonak, A. and Rajabzadeh, G. 2015. Retention of saffron bioactive components by spray drying encapsulation using maltodextrin, gum Arabic and gelatin as wall materials. Food Hydrocoll. 51: 327–337
Rascón, M. P., Bonilla, E., García, H. S., Salgado, M. A., González-Arnao, M. T. and Beristain, C. I. 2015. Tg and aw as criteria for the oxidative stability of spray-dried encapsulated paprika oleoresin. Eur. Food Res. Technol. 241: 217–225
Rocha-Parra, D. F., Lanari, M. C., Zamora, M. C. and Chirife, J. 2016. Influence of storage conditions on phenolic compounds stability, antioxidant capacity and colour of freeze-dried encapsulated red wine. LWT - Food Sci. Technol. 70: 162–170
Rodríguez-Hernández, G. R., González-García, R., Grajales-Lagunes, A., Ruiz-Cabrera, M. A. and Abud-Archila, M. 2005. Spray-Drying of Cactus Pear Juice (Opuntia streptacantha): Effect on the Physicochemical Properties of Powder and Reconstituted Product. Dry. Technol. 23: 955–973
Ruiz-Cabrera, M. A., Schmidt, S. J. 2014. Determination of glass transition temperatures during cooling and heating of low-moisture amorphous sugar mixtures. J. Food Eng. 146: 36–43
Silva, E. K, Azevedo, V. M., Cunha, R. L., Hubinger, M. D. and Meireles, M. A. A. 2016. Ultrasound-assisted encapsulation of annatto seed oil - Whey protein isolate versus modified starch. Food Hydrocoll. 56: 71–83
Silva, E. K., Borges, S. V., da Costa, J. M. G., Queiroz, F. and Costa, J. M. G. 2015. Thermodynamic properties, kinetics and adsorption mechanisms of Swiss cheese bioaroma powder. Powder Technol. 272: 181–188
Soottitantawat, A., Yoshii, H., Furuta, T., Ohgawara, M. and Forssell, P. 2004. Effect of water activity on the release characteristics and oxidative stability of D-limonene encapsulated by spray drying. J. Agric. Food Chem. 52: 1269–1276
Toledo Hijo, A. A. C., da Costa, J. M. G., Silva, E. K., Azevedo, V. M., Yoshida, M. I. and Borges, S. V. Physical and Thermal Properties of Oregano (Origanum vulgare L.) Essential Oil Microparticles. J. Food Process Eng. 38: 1–10
Tonon, R. V., Baroni, A. F., Brabet, C., Gibert, O., Pallet, D. and Hubinger, M. D. 2009. Water sorption and glass transition temperature of spray dried açai (Euterpe oleracea Mart.) juice. J. Food Eng. 94: 215–221
Vega-Gálvez, A., López, J., Ah-Hen, K., Torres, M. J. and Lemus-Mondaca, R. 2014. Thermodynamic properties, sorption isotherms and glass transition temperature of cape gooseberry (Physalis peruviana L.). Food Technol. Biotechnol. 52: 83–92

Abd Ghani, A., Adachi, S, Shiga, H., Neoh, T. L., Adachi, S. and Yoshii H. 2017. Effect of different dextrose equivalents of maltodextrin on oxidation stability in encapsulated fish oil by spray drying. Biosci. Biotechnol. Biochem. 81:1–7
Akhavan Mahdavi, S., Jafari, S. M., Assadpoor, E. and Dehnad, D. 2016a. Microencapsulation optimization of natural anthocyanins with maltodextrin, gum Arabic and gelatin. Int. J. Biol. Macromol. 85: 379–385
Akhavan Mahdavi, S., Jafari, S. M., Assadpoor, E. and Ghorbani, M. 2016b. Storage stability of encapsulated barberry’s anthocyanin and its application in jelly formulation. J. Food Eng. 181: 59–66
Aniesrani Delfiya, D. S., Thangavel, K., Natarajan, N., Kasthuri, R. and Kailappan, R. 2015. Microencapsulation of Turmeric Oleoresin by Spray Drying and In Vitro Release Studies of Microcapsules. J. Food Process Eng. 38:37–48
Barbosa-Cánovas, G. V., Fontana, A. J., Schmidt, S. J. and Labuza, T. P. 2008. Water Activity in Foods. In Water Activity in Foods: Fundamentals and Applications. First Edition. 1–435. Oxford: Blackwell Publishing.
Bhandari, B. R., Dumoulin, E. D., Richard, H. M. J., Noleau, I. and Lebert, A. M. 1992. Flavor Encapsulation by Spray Drying: Application to Citral and Linalyl Acetate. J. Food. Sci. 57:217-221.
Botrel, D. A., de Barros Fernandes, R. V., Borges, S. V. and Yoshida, M. I. 2014. Influence of wall matrix systems on the properties of spray-dried microparticles containing fish oil. Food Res. Int. 62: 344–352
Cano-Higuita, D. M., Malacrida, C. R. and Telis, V. R. N. 2015. Stability of Curcumin Microencapsulated by Spray and Freeze Drying in Binary and Ternary Matrices of Maltodextrin, Gum Arabic and Modified Starch. J. Food Process. Preserv. 39: 2049–2060
Cardoso-Ugarte, G. A., López-Malo, A. and Sosa-Morales, M. E. 2016. Cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum) Essential Oil. In Essential Oils in Food Preservation, Flavor and Safety., 1 ed. VR Preedy, pp. 339–349. San Diego: Elsevier Inc.
Carrillo-Navas, H., González-Rodea, D. A., Cruz-Olivares, J., Barrera-Pichardo J. F., Román-Guerrero A. and Pérez-Alonso C. 2011. Storage stability and physicochemical properties of passion fruit juice microcapsules by spray-drying. Rev. Mex. Ing. Química. 10:421–430
Carvalho A. G. S., Machado, M. T. da C., Silva, V. M., Sartoratto, A., Rodrigues, R. A. and Hubinger, M. D. 2016. Physical properties and morphology of spray dried microparticles containing anthocyanins of jussara (Euterpe edulis Martius) extract. Powder Technol. 294:421–428
Choudhury, D., Sahu, J. K., Sharma, G. D. 2011. Moisture sorption isotherms, heat of sorption and properties of sorbed water of raw bamboo (Dendrocalamus longispathus) shoots. Ind. Crops Prod. 33: 211–216
Collares, F. P., Kieckbusch, T. G. and Finzer, J. R. D. 2002. Review : Glass Transition in Food Products. Brazilian J. Food Technol. 5: 117–130
Cortés-Rojas, D. F. and Oliveira, W. P. 2012. Physicochemical Properties of Phytopharmaceutical Preparations as Affected by Drying Methods and Carriers. Dry. Technol. 30: 921–934
Fang, Z. and Bhandari B. R. 2012. Comparing the efficiency of protein and maltodextrin on spray drying of bayberry juice. Food Res. Int. 48: 478–483
Felix, P. H. C., Birchal, V. S., Botrel, D. A., Marques, G. R. and Borges, S. V. 2016. Physicochemical and Thermal Stability of Microcapsules of Cinnamon Essential Oil by Spray Drying. J. Food Process. Preserv. 41: e12919
Fernandes, R. V. B., Borges, S. V., Botrel, D. A., Silva, E. K., Costa, J. M. G. and Queiroz F. 2013. Microencapsulation of Rosemary Essential Oil: Characterization of Particles. Dry. Technol. 31: 1245–1254
Ferrari, C. C., Germer, S. P. M., Alvim, I. D., Vissotto, F. Z. and de Aguirre, J. M. 2012. Influence of carrier agents on the physicochemical properties of blackberry powder produced by spray drying. Int. J. Food Sci. Technol. 47: 1237–1245
Ferrari, C. C., Marconi Germer, S. P., Alvim, I. D., de Aguirre, J. M. 2013. Storage Stability of Spray-Dried Blackberry Powder Produced with Maltodextrin or Gum Arabic. Dry. Technol. 31: 470–478
Gomes da Costa, J. M., Silva, E. K., Toledo Hijo, A. A. C., Azevedo, V. M. and Borges, S. V. 2015. Physical and Thermal Stability of Spray-Dried Swiss Cheese Bioaroma Powder. Dry. Technol. 33: 346–354
Goula, A. M. and Adamopoulos, K. G. 2012. A New Technique for Spray-Dried Encapsulation of Lycopene. Dry. Technol. 30: 641–652
Goula, A. M., Karapantsios, T. D., Achilias, D. S. and Adamopoulos, K. G. 2008. Water sorption isotherms and glass transition temperature of spray dried tomato pulp. J. Food Eng. 85: 73–83
Guan, Y. and Zhong, Q. 2015. The improved thermal stability of anthocyanins at pH 5.0 by gum arabic. LWT - Food Sci. Technol. 64: 706–712
Jeya-Kumari, A., Venkateshwarlu, G., Choukse, M. K. and Anandan, R. 2014. Effect of Essential Oil and Aqueous Extract of Ginger (Zingiber Officinale) on Oxidative Stability of Fish oil-in-Water Emulsion. J. Food Process. Technol. 6(1):1–5
Klein, T., Longhini, R., Bruschi, M. L. and de Mello, J. C. P. 2015. Microparticles containing guaraná extract obtained by spray-drying technique: development and characterization. Rev. Bras. Farmacogn. 25:292–300
Kuck, L. S. and Noreña, C. P. Z. 2016. Microencapsulation of grape (Vitis labrusca var. Bordo) skin phenolic extract using gum Arabic, polydextrose, and partially hydrolyzed guar gum as encapsulating agents. Food Chem. 194:569–576
Kurozawa, L. E., Park, K. J. and Hubinger, M. D. 2009. Effect of maltodextrin and gum arabic on water sorption and glass transition temperature of spray dried chicken meat hydrolysate protein. J. Food Eng. 92: 287–296
Lewicki, P. P. 1997. The applicability of the GAB model to food water sorption isotherms. Int. J. Food Sci. Technol. 32: 553–557
Lomauro, C. J., Bakshi, A. S. and Labuza, T. P. 1985. Evaluation of food moisture Sorption Isotherm Equations: Part I: Fruit, vegetable adn Meat Products. LWT. Food. Sci. Technol. 18: 111-117.
Mahdavee Khazaei, K., Jafari, S. M., Ghorbani, M. and Hemmati Kakhki, A. 2014. Application of maltodextrin and gum Arabic in microencapsulation of saffron petal’s anthocyanins and evaluating their storage stability and color. Carbohydr. Polym. 105: 57–62
Mahdavi, S. A., Jafari, S. M., Ghorbani, M, and Assadpoor, E. 2014. Spray-Drying Microencapsulation of Anthocyanins by Natural Biopolymers: A Review. Dry. Technol. 32: 509–518
Martins, I. M., Barreiro, M. F., Coelho, M. and Rodrigues, A. E. 2014. Microencapsulation of essential oils with biodegradable polymeric carriers for cosmetic applications. Chem. Eng. J. 245: 191–200
Matioli, G. and Rodriguez-Amaya, D. B. 2002. Lycopene encapsulated with Gum Arabic and Maltodextrin: Stability Study. Brazilian J. Food Technol. 5: 197–203
Mensor, L. L., Menezes, F. S., Leitão, G. G., Reis, A. S. and Santos, T. C. dos. 2001. Screening of Brazilian plant extracts for antioxidant activity by the use of DPPH free radical method. Phyther. Res. 15: 127–130
Moraga, G., Martínez-Navarrete, N. and Chiralt, A. 2004. Water sorption isotherms and glass transition in strawberries: Influence of pretreatment. J. Food Eng. 62: 315–321
Moraga, G., Martínez-Navarrete, N. and Chiralt, A. 2006. Water sorption isotherms and phase transitions in kiwifruit. J. Food Eng. 72: 147–156
Mosquera, L. H., Moraga, G. and Martínez-Navarrete, N. 2012. Critical water activity and critical water content of freeze-dried strawberry powder as affected by maltodextrin and arabic gum. Food Res. Int. 47: 201–206
Oliveira, M. I. S., Tonon, R. V., Nogueira, R. I. and Cabral, L. M. C. 2013. Stability of spray-dryed strawberry pulp produced with different carrier agents. Brazilian J. Food Technol. 16: 310–318
Pérez-Alonso, C., Cruz-Olivares, J., Barrera-Pichardo, J. F., Rodríguez-Huezo, M. E., Báez-González, J. G. and Vernon-Carter, E. J. 2008. DSC thermo-oxidative stability of red chili oleoresin microencapsulated in blended biopolymers matrices. J. Food Eng. 85: 613–624
Pitalua, E., Jimenez, M., Vernon-Carter, E. J. and Beristain, C. I. 2010. Antioxidative activity of microcapsules with beetroot juice using gum Arabic as wall material. Food Bioprod. Process. 88: 253–258
Rajabi, H., Ghorbani, M., Jafari, S. M., Sadeghi Mahoonak, A. and Rajabzadeh, G. 2015. Retention of saffron bioactive components by spray drying encapsulation using maltodextrin, gum Arabic and gelatin as wall materials. Food Hydrocoll. 51: 327–337
Rascón, M. P., Bonilla, E., García, H. S., Salgado, M. A., González-Arnao, M. T. and Beristain, C. I. 2015. Tg and aw as criteria for the oxidative stability of spray-dried encapsulated paprika oleoresin. Eur. Food Res. Technol. 241: 217–225
Rocha-Parra, D. F., Lanari, M. C., Zamora, M. C. and Chirife, J. 2016. Influence of storage conditions on phenolic compounds stability, antioxidant capacity and colour of freeze-dried encapsulated red wine. LWT - Food Sci. Technol. 70: 162–170
Rodríguez-Hernández, G. R., González-García, R., Grajales-Lagunes, A., Ruiz-Cabrera, M. A. and Abud-Archila, M. 2005. Spray-Drying of Cactus Pear Juice (Opuntia streptacantha): Effect on the Physicochemical Properties of Powder and Reconstituted Product. Dry. Technol. 23: 955–973
Ruiz-Cabrera, M. A., Schmidt, S. J. 2014. Determination of glass transition temperatures during cooling and heating of low-moisture amorphous sugar mixtures. J. Food Eng. 146: 36–43
Silva, E. K, Azevedo, V. M., Cunha, R. L., Hubinger, M. D. and Meireles, M. A. A. 2016. Ultrasound-assisted encapsulation of annatto seed oil - Whey protein isolate versus modified starch. Food Hydrocoll. 56: 71–83
Silva, E. K., Borges, S. V., da Costa, J. M. G., Queiroz, F. and Costa, J. M. G. 2015. Thermodynamic properties, kinetics and adsorption mechanisms of Swiss cheese bioaroma powder. Powder Technol. 272: 181–188
Soottitantawat, A., Yoshii, H., Furuta, T., Ohgawara, M. and Forssell, P. 2004. Effect of water activity on the release characteristics and oxidative stability of D-limonene encapsulated by spray drying. J. Agric. Food Chem. 52: 1269–1276
Toledo Hijo, A. A. C., da Costa, J. M. G., Silva, E. K., Azevedo, V. M., Yoshida, M. I. and Borges, S. V. Physical and Thermal Properties of Oregano (Origanum vulgare L.) Essential Oil Microparticles. J. Food Process Eng. 38: 1–10
Tonon, R. V., Baroni, A. F., Brabet, C., Gibert, O., Pallet, D. and Hubinger, M. D. 2009. Water sorption and glass transition temperature of spray dried açai (Euterpe oleracea Mart.) juice. J. Food Eng. 94: 215–221
Vega-Gálvez, A., López, J., Ah-Hen, K., Torres, M. J. and Lemus-Mondaca, R. 2014. Thermodynamic properties, sorption isotherms and glass transition temperature of cape gooseberry (Physalis peruviana L.). Food Technol. Biotechnol. 52: 83–92
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Campelo, P., J. Figueiredo, V. Ferraz, M. Yoshida, R. V. Fernandes, D. Botrel, and S. Borges. “HYGROSCOPIC, THERMAL AND CHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF CINNAMON ESSENTIAL OIL MICROPARTICLE OBTAINED BY SPRAY DRYING”. Emirates Journal of Food and Agriculture, Vol. 29, no. 11, Nov. 2017, pp. 884-92, doi:https://doi.org/10.9755/ejfa.2017.v29.i11.1499. Accessed 15 Aug. 2020.
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