Improvement effect of nitrogen fertilizer and plant density on wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) seed deterioration and yield

  • Hedieh Mosanaei Agronomy Department, Agriculture Faculty, Islamic Azad University of Gorgan, Iran
  • Hossein AjamNorozi Agronomy Department, Agriculture Faculty, Islamic Azad University of Gorgan, Iran
  • Mohammad Reza Dadashi Agronomy Department, Agriculture Faculty, Islamic Azad University of Gorgan, Iran
  • Abolfazleh Faraji Horticulture and Agronomy Department, Golestan Agricultural and Natural Resources Research and Education Center, Agricultural Research, Education and Extension Organization (AREEO), Gorgan, Iran
  • Mohammad Pessarakli School of Plant Science, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ, 85721, USA


In order to study the effect of seed deterioration, plant density and nitrogen fertilizer application on yield, yield components and some
qualitative traits of wheat, a field experiment was conducted in Golestan province of Iran, as split factorial in the randomized complete
block design, with four replications in two growing seasons, 2014-2015 and 2015-2016. The experimental treatments included seed
quality at 4 levels (control, 15, 30, and 45 hours of accelerated deterioration), plant density at two levels (350 and 420 plants/m
) and nitrogen consumption at 3 levels (recommended rate, 15 and 30 percentages higher than the recommended rate, i.e., 125, 143.75, and
162.5 kg N fertilizer ha, respectively). All quantitative traits (plant height, spike length, number of seeds per spike, number of spikelets
per spike, weight of 1000 seed, grain yield, straw yield, biological yield and harvest index) and quality traits (yield and protein content,
nitrogen content, yield and starch content) were significantly different in different years. Application of recommended rate of nitrogen
fertilizer in the first and the second year resulted in the highest average of number of seeds per spike and spike length. The highest
grain yield was achieved in the recommended and 30% higher than the recommended application rate of nitrogen fertilizer (4061.9 and
4166.3 kg/ha, respectively) in the second year. Seed deterioration caused a significant reduction in yield and the yield components, so
the highest level of seed deteriorations in the first and the second years decreased 34.11 and 22.63% of the grain yield compared to
the control treatment. The highest protein content was achieved in the second year with the application of nitrogen 30% higher than the
recommended rate (with a mean of 623.6 kg/ha), which increased by about 23% compared to the overall average. Seed deterioration
reduced the starch content, so that the highest mean was in non-deterioration in the second year (68.13%), which increased by 10%
compared with that of the overall average. The lowest starch content was achieved at the highest level of deterioration (45 hours) in the
first year (55.63%). In general, the results indicated that seed deterioration had negative effects on quantitative and some qualitative
traits, but the application of more nitrogen fertilizer and higher plant density reduced the negative effects of deterioration and improved
grain yield and quality.

Keywords: Seed Deterioration; Urea; Protein; Harvest index; Yield; Starch


Ahern, F.O., M. Bever, A. Campbell and M. Therrien. 1995. Production and feeding of Hull-less barley. Agricultural and Agricultural-Food, Canada. Publication. pp. 21.
Brown, B., M. Westcott, N. Christensen, B. Pan and J. Stark. 2005. Nitrogen Management for Hard Wheat Protein Enhancement. Pacific Northwest Extension Publication. PNW 578.
Budakli Carpici, E., N.Celik and G. Bayram. 2010. Yield and quality of forage maize as influenced by plant density and nitrogen rate, Turk. J. Field. Crops. 15(2): 128-132.
Bulman, P and D. L. Smith. 1993. Yield and yield and components response of spring barley to fertilizer nitrogen. Agron. J. 85: 226-231.
Camberato, J and J. B. R. Bock. 2001. Spring wheat response to enhanced a minimum supply. Agron. J. 82: 467-473.
Dianne, C. F., W. Randy, H. Ronnie, M. S. Paul and G.W. Seffery. 2006. Minimizing protein variability in soft red winter wheat: Impact of nitrogen application timing and rate. Agron. J. 98: 1137–1145.
Donald, C. M. 1986. The breeding of crop ideotypes. Euphytica. 17: 385-403.
Dustenson, M. 1973. Analysis of interrelationships among seedling vigor fields emergence and yield in wheat. Agron. J. 64:417- 422.
Ercoli, L., L. Lulli, M. Mariotti, A. Masoni and I. Arduini. 2008. Post-anthesis dry matter and nitrogen dynamics in durum wheat as affected by nitrogen supply and soil water availability. Eur. J. Agron. 28: 138–147.
Fischer, R. A. 1999. Irrigated spring wheat and timing and the amount of nitrogen fertilizer. Field Crops Res. 33: 57-80.
Fowler, B. D and J. Brydon. 2001. No-till winter wheat production on the Canadian prairies. Agron. J. 81: 817-825.
Fowler, D. B. 2003. Crop nitrogen demand and grain protein concentration of spring and winter wheat. Agron. J. 95: 260-265.
Garcia del Moral, L. F., M. Belen, J. L. Garcia del Moral, A. Molina-canoe and A.G. Slafer. 2003. Yield stability and development in two and six rowed winter barleys under Mediterranean conditions. Field Crops Res. 81: 109-119.
Gardner, F. 2007. Crops physiology. Jahad Daneshgahi Press of Mashhad. pp. 300.
Garrido-Lestache, E., R. J. Lopez-Bellido and L. Lopez-Bellido. 2005. Durum wheat quality under Mediterranean conditions as affected by N rate, timing and splitting, N form and S fertilization. Eur. J. Agron. 23: 265-278.
Gharineh, M. H., A. M. Bakhshandeh and K. Ghassemi-Golezani. 2004. Effects of viability and vigor of seed on establishment and grain yield of wheat cultivars in field conditions. Seed and Plant Pro. 20(3): 383-400.
Ghobadi, M., M. Eghbal Ghobadi and S. Sadat Sayah. 2010. Nitrogen application management in triticale under post- anthesis drought stress. Word Academy of Science, Engineering, and Technology. 70: 252-254.
Hampton, J. G. 2003. Methods of viability and vigor testing: a critical and appraisal. In: pp. 81-118. Basra A.S. (ed.) seed quality, basic mechanisms, and agricultural implications. CBS Publishers and Distributes, New Delhi, India.
Hasstrup, P. I., P. E. Jourgenson and I. Ploulsen. 1993. Effect of seed vigor and dormancy of field emergence development and grain yield of winter bit and winter barley. Seed Sci. Technol. 21:159-178.
Hellubust, J. A and J. S. Caraigie. 1978. Handbook of physiological methods, Physiological and biochemical methods, Cambridge University Press.
Hiltbrunner, J., B. Streit and M. Lidgens. 2007. Are seeding densities an opportunity to increase grain yield of winter wheat in a living mulch of white clover? Field Crops Res. 102: 163-171.
Kheshtzar, M and S. A. Siadat. 2015. Study of effect seed deterioration and plant density on yield and yield components of hull-less barley. Agri. Crop Manag.16(4):829-838.
Krishnan, P., S. Nagarajan, M. Dadlani and A. V. Moharir. 2003. Characterization of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and soybean (Glycine max L.) seeds under accelerated aging conditions by proton nuclear magnetic spectroscopy. Seed Sci. Technol. 31: 541- 550.
Latiri-Souki, K., S. Nortcliff and D. W. Lawlor. 1998. N fertilizer can increase dry matter production, grain yield and radiation and water use efficiencies of wheat under semi-arid conditions. Eur. J. Agron. 9: 34-21.
Lehner, A., N. Mamadou, P. Poels, D. Come, C. Baily and F. Corbineau. 2008. Changes in soluble carbohydrates, lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzyme activities in the embryo during aging in wheat grains. J. Cereal Sci. 47: 555-565.
Lemon, J. 2007. Nitrogen management for wheat protein and yield in the Esperance port zone. Department of Agriculture and Food Publisher. pp. 25.
Lv, Y., S. Zhang, J. Hu and Y. Wang. 2016. Quantitative proteomic analysis of wheat seeds during artificial aging and priming using the isobaric tandem mass tag labeling. PLoS ONE 11 (9): e0162851. doi:10.1371/journal. pone.0162851
Madhaj, A., A. Naderi, Y. Emam, A. Ayneband and G. Normohammadi. 2009. Effect of different nitrogen levels on grain yield, grain protein content and agronomic nitrogen use efficiency in wheat genotypes under optimum and post-anthesis heat stress conditions. Seed and Plant Pro. 25(4):353-371.
Mc Donald, G. K. 2002. Effects of nitrogen fertilizer on the growth grain yield and grain protein concentration of wheat. Aust. J. Agric. Res. 43: 949-967.
McDonald, C. M., C. D. Floyd and R. D. Waniska. 2004. Effect of accelerated aging on maize, sorghum, and sorghum. J. Cereal Sci. 39: 351- 301.
Melero, S., R. J. Lopez-Bellido, L. Lopez-Bellido, V. N. Mun.oz-Romero, Fe´. Lix Moreno, J., M. Murillo and A. J. Franzluebbers. 2012. Stratification ratios in a rainfed Mediterranean Vertisol in wheat under different tillage, rotation, and N fertilization rates. Soil and Tillage Res. 119. 7.12.
Modarresi, R., M. Rucker and D. M. Tekrony. 2002. Accelerating aging test for comparing wheat seed vigor. Seed Sci. Tech. 30: 683-687.
Moghaddam, M., B. Ehdaie and E. Waines. 1997. Genetic variation and inter relationships of agronomic characters in landraces of bread wheat from South-eastern Iran. Euphytica. 95: 361-369.
Mohsen Nesab, F., M. Sharifizadeh and A. S. Sayyidat. 2010. Effect of seed deteriorates on seedling establishment, yield and yield components of wheat cultivars under Khuzestan climate. J. Sci. Plant Growth. 2(6): 13-29.
Nourmohammadi, Gh., A. Siadat and A. Kashani. 2010. Cereal crops. Ninth printing. ChamranUniversity Press, pp. 48.
Parvane, V. 2005. Food qualitative control and chemical experiments. Tehran University Press. pp. 332.
Peng, B. 2011. Effect of controlled overexpression of glucokinase by different promoters on xylose metabolism in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Wei Sheng Wu Xue Bao. 51(7):914-22.
Powell, A. A. 1998. Seed vigor and field establishment. Univ. (UK). Dept. of Agriculture, 11:29-80.
Qi, J. C., G. P. Zhang and M. X. Zhon. 2006. Protein and hordein content in barley seeds as affected by nitrogen level and their relationship to beta-amylase activity. J. Cereal Sci. 43: 102–107.
Rama, C., P. Kumari, O. Singh and R. K. Sadana. 1999. The relationship between seed vigor tests and field emergence in chickpea. Seed Sci. and Tech. 17: 169 173.
Reynold, M. P and S. Rajarm. 1999. Physiological and genetic changes of irrigated wheat in the post green revolution period and approaches for meeting projected global demand. Crop Sci. 39: 1611-1621.
Royo, C., D. Villegas, Y. Rharrabti, R. Blanco, V. Martos and L. F. Garcia delmoral. 2006. Grain growth and yield formation of durum wheat grown at contrasting latitudes and water regimes in a Mediterranean environment. Cereal Res. Commun. 34: 1021-1028.
Sabbr, Z., H. A. Peirdashti, M. A. Esmaili and A. Abassian. 2011. Evaluation of growth promoting bacteria, nitrogen, and phosphorus on fertilizer efficiency and yield of wheat. Agroecology. 5 (1): 39-49.
Sadeghi, H and A. R. Kazemeini. 2011. Effect of crop residue management and nitrogen fertilizer on grain yield and yield components of two barley cultivars under dry land conditions. Iranian J. Crop Sci. 13 (3): 436-451.
Shanggan, Z. P., A. Shao and J. Dychmans. 2000. Nitrogen nutrition and water stress effects on leaf photosynthetic gas exchange and water use efficiency in winter wheat. Environ. and Exp. Bot. 44: 141-149.
Sieling, K., C. Stahl, C.Winkelmann and O. Christen. 2005. Growth and yield of winter wheat in the first 3 years of a monoculture under varying N fertilization in NW Germany. Eur. J. Agron. 22: 71-84.
Soltani, E., S. Galeshi, B. Kamkar and F. Akramghaderi. 2009. The effect of seed aging on the seedling growth as affected by environmental factors in wheat. Res. J. Environ Sci. 3: 184-192.
Šramková, Z., E. Gregová and E. Šturdík. 2009. Chemical composition and nutritional quality of wheat grain. Acta Chim. Slov. 2: 115–138.
Srivastava, R. D. L and O. N. Mehrotra. 1981. Physiological studies on nutrition of dwarf wheat. Iv. Effect of rate and method of nitrogen application on yield and yield components of wheat. Indian J. Agric. Chem. 14(1-2): 139-147.
Tekrony, D. M and D. B. Egli. 1991. Relation ship of seed vigor to crop yield: a review. Crop Sci. 31(3):816-822.
Uhart S. A and F. H. Andrade. 1995. Nitrogen deficiency in maize: I. Effects on crop growth, development dry matter partitioning and kernel set. Crop Sci. 35: 1376-1383.
Victim, M., A. Soltani and Q. Amiri. 2005. Effect of salinity and seed size on germination and seedling growth of wheat. J. Agric. Sci. and Natu. Res. 14(6): 60-56.
Vos, J., P. E. L. Vander Putten and C. J. Birch. 2005. Effect of nitrogen supply on leaf appearance, leaf nitrogen economy and photosynthetic maize (Zea mays L.). Field Crop Res. 93: 64-73.
Warraich, E. A., S. M. A. Basra, N. Ahmad and R. M. Ahmedand Aftab. 2002. Effect of nitrogen on grain quality and vigor in Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Inter. J. Agric & Biol. 4:517-520.
Wysocki, D. J., M. Corp, D. A. Horneck and L. K. Lutcher. 2007. Nutrient management guide: Irrigated and dryland Canola. Oregon State University EM-8943-E,
Xi-haun, L., C. Wen-suo, C. Cai-Ying, L. Bao and M. Zhi-Ying. 2008. Relations between sowing date, seeding density and grain yield of two introduced malting barley varieties. J. Agric. University of Hebei. 31:6-11
Zorb, C., C. Grover, D. Steinfurth and K. H. Muhling. 2010. Quantitative proteome analysis of wheat gluten as influenced by N and S nutrition. Plant and Soil. 327(1/2): 225-234.
147 Views | 194 Downloads
How to Cite
Mosanaei, H., H. AjamNorozi, M. R. Dadashi, A. Faraji, and M. Pessarakli. “Improvement Effect of Nitrogen Fertilizer and Plant Density on Wheat (Triticum Aestivum L.) Seed Deterioration and Yield”. Emirates Journal of Food and Agriculture, Vol. 29, no. 11, Oct. 2017, pp. 899-10, doi: Accessed 15 Aug. 2020.
Regular Articles