Pre-and post-harvest factors and their impact on oil composition and quality of olive fruit
Olive fruit and its oil are in great demand due to its nutritional value, which can be influenced by the pre-and post-harvest factors. The pre-and post-harvest factors are discussed in this article in an effort to recognize as being and investigate the ultimate effect of these factors on the olive fruit and its oil composition. Genetic, agronomic and environmental factors influence olive fruits and olive oil composition. The olive cultivar influences fruit weight, olive oil content, fatty acids, peroxide value, esters, volatile compounds and fatty alcohol content. Chlorophyll content, carotenoids, flavor and volatile compounds vary depending upon geographical area of origin. Environmental conditions have an effect on enzymes, oil composition, fatty acids, microbial activity, esters, flowering, growth and development, ripening rate, insect activity and susceptibility or resistance to diseases. Tree age has an impact on phenol content of olive oil. The boron, nitrogen, potassium, salinity and zinc treatments have an influence on the olive fruit and its oil composition. In addition, the ripening degree, harvesting time has enforcement on olive oil content. Leaf removal and washing of the fruit promote the purity of the olive oil for both chemical and sensorial aspects. A not prolonged fruit crushing together with a not prolonged paste malaxation at a temperature below 27 °C increase the sensory and physicochemical qualities of olive oil. Inappropriate oil extraction promotes the off-ﬂavors in the olive oil. Dark storage helps to retain the chemical and sensorial olive oil quality. The oil quality degrades toward the inside of cooking temperature.