Morphoagronomic characterization of Sorghum cultivar ‘CIAP 132R-05’ obtained by somatic embryogenesis in the conversion phase using different substrates

  • Silvio de J. Martínez Medina Centro de Investigaciones Agropecuarias, Universidad Central “Marta Abreu” de Las Villas. Carretera a Camajuaní km 5.5, Santa Clara, Cuba
  • Raúl Barbón Rodríguez, Rafael Gómez-Kosky, Novisel Veitía Rodríguez Instituto de Biotecnología de las Plantas, Universidad Central de Las Villas “Marta Abreu”. Carretera a Camajuaní km 5.5, Santa Clara, CP 54830, Cuba
  • María Esther González Vega Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Agrícolas. Carretera a Tapaste km 3,5; San José de las Lajas, Mayabeque
  • Orlando Saucedo Castillo Centro de Investigaciones Agropecuarias, Universidad Central “Marta Abreu” de Las Villas. Carretera a Camajuaní km 5.5, Santa Clara, CP 54830, Cuba
  • Eduardo Fidel Héctor Ardisana Instituto de Posgrado, Universidad Técnica de Manabí, Portoviejo, C.P. EC130105, Ecuador
  • Sandra Pérez Álvarez Facultad de Ciencias Agrícolas y Forestales, Universidad Autónoma de Chihuahua, Km 2.5, carretera Delicias-Rosales, campus Delicias, CD. Delicias, Chihuahua CP 33000

Abstract

Sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] is an important crop after wheat, corn, rice and barley. The aim of this research was to study morphological characterization of the plant population of grain sorghum cultivar CIAP 132R-05 regenerated via somatic embryogenesis under semi controlled conditions in green house.  Plants regenerated from somatic embryos were compared to plants grown from botanical seeds. Both populations of plants were characterized morphologically, taking in account quantitative traits (plant height (cm), stem diameter, number of active leaves per plant, limb length and width, number of active roots per plant, length of the roots (cm), fresh weight (gMF), foliar area (dm2), number of shoots per plant) and qualitative traits (albino or variegated plants, color of the leaves). Quantitative characteristics of both populations corresponded with those listed in the National Register of Commercial Varieties of Cuba. However; the population of plants derived from somatic embryos showed significantly higher values ​​for plant height, stem diameter, limb length and width, which may be associated with the physiological rejuvenation produced by the effect of in vitro culture. This allowed to determine the phenotypic stability of the regenerated plants via somatic embryogenesis, by assessing morphological characters in field conditions. The results can be applied to the in vitro propagation of elite plants selected as a product of conventional breeding programs and obtained through the use of different biotechnological methods.

Keywords: Morphological characters, somaclonal variation, somatic embryogenesis
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