Green grain of spelt (Triticum aestivum ssp. spelta) harvested at the stage of milk-dough as a rich source of valuable nutrients
The aim of this study was to compare the chemical composition of three spelt wheat cultivars harvested at the milk-dough stage (MDS) and at the fully ripe stage (FRS) in the organic farm in Poland. Green grain of cv. ‘Oberkulmer Rotkorn’ harvested at MDS showed a significantly higher content of P, K, Ca, Zn, Fe, Na and B, compared to grain harvested at FRS. In unripe grain of cv. ‘Rokosz’, the content of N, K, Zn, Mn and Na was significantly higher than in ripe grain at FRS. In the case of cv. ‘Wirtas’, the P, K, Mg, Ca, Zn, Mn and B content determined at MDS was higher than that found in ripe grain at FRS. The content of Lys, Met, Ala and Tyr in green grain of all the cultivars evaluated was higher than that determined at FRS. However, when the grain was harvested at the fully ripe stage, the increase of Arg, His, Leu, Phe, Val, Glu, Pro and Ser was found. The content of fat and α-linolenic fatty acid in green grain of spelt was higher than in ripe grain. The presence of cinnamic and dicarboxylic acids was only found in spelt harvested at MDS. Unripe grain was also characterized by a higher content of hydroxy and phenolic acids.