Green grain of spelt (Triticum aestivum ssp. spelta) harvested at the stage of milk-dough as a rich source of valuable nutrients

  • Piotr Kraska, Sylwia Andruszczak Department of Herbology and Plant Cultivation Techniques, Faculty of Agrobioengineering, University of Life Science in Lublin, Akademicka Str. 13, 20-950 Lublin, Poland
  • Dariusz Dziki Department of Thermal Technology and Food Process Engineering, Faculty of Production Engineering, University of Life Science in Lublin, Głęboka Str. 31, 20-612 Lublin, Poland
  • Marcin Stocki Forest Faculty, Białystok University of Technology, Piłsudskiego Str. 1A, 17-200 Hajnówka, Poland
  • Natalia Stocka Faculty of Building and Environmental Engineering, Białystok University of Technology, Wiejska Str. 45E, 15-351 Białystok, Poland
  • Krzysztof Różyło, Paweł Gierasimiuk Department of Herbology and Plant Cultivation Techniques, Faculty of Agrobioengineering, University of Life Science in Lublin, Akademicka Str. 13, 20-950 Lublin, Poland

Abstract

The aim of this study was to compare the chemical composition of three spelt wheat cultivars harvested at the milk-dough stage (MDS) and at the fully ripe stage (FRS) in the organic farm in Poland. Green grain of cv. ‘Oberkulmer Rotkorn’ harvested at MDS showed a significantly higher content of P, K, Ca, Zn, Fe, Na and B, compared to grain harvested at FRS. In unripe grain of cv. ‘Rokosz’, the content of N, K, Zn, Mn and Na was significantly higher than in ripe grain at FRS. In the case of cv. ‘Wirtas’, the P, K, Mg, Ca, Zn, Mn and B content determined at MDS was higher than that found in ripe grain at FRS. The content of Lys, Met, Ala and Tyr in green grain of all the cultivars evaluated was higher than that determined at FRS. However, when the grain was harvested at the fully ripe stage, the increase of Arg, His, Leu, Phe, Val, Glu, Pro and Ser was found. The content of fat and α-linolenic fatty acid in green grain of spelt was higher than in ripe grain. The presence of cinnamic and dicarboxylic acids was only found in spelt harvested at MDS. Unripe grain was also characterized by a higher content of hydroxy and phenolic acids.

Keywords: amino acids, biologically active compounds, chemical composition, fatty acids, green spelt grain
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