Analysis of nutrients and compounds potentially reducing risks of overweightness and obesity-related diseases in raw and roasted Adenanthera pavonina seeds from Samoa
Recently, Samoans have faced to alarming increase in the prevalence of obesity related diseases, which are connected to the consumption of imported calorie-rich and nutrient-poor food products. It is believed that the re-introduction of native diet may mitigate these negative trends. In Samoa, the seeds of Adenanthera pavonina, an underutilized leguminous tree, are popularly eaten when roasted. Although the seeds are also used in traditional medicine to treat inflammatory and cardiovascular diseases, information on their nutrients and any compounds potentially reducing risks of related health disorders is very limited. Therefore, the objective of this study was to analyse the nutrients and compounds potentially reducing risks of overweight- and obesity-related health problems in raw and roasted A. pavonina seeds from Samoa. The standard analytical and microbiological methods, namely gas chromatography–mass spectrometry, inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry, high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection, ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, and Czech technical standard methods, were used for the determination of fatty acids, minerals, tocopherols, phenolic compounds, and B vitamins, respectively. The analyses showed that the lignoceric (17.59% and 18.24%), linoleic (39.80% and 37.88%), and oleic acids (14.67% and 14.75%) were the most abundant in the oil of raw and roasted seeds, with the unsaturated forms present in higher amounts than saturated. The seeds were found to be rich of vitamin E (33.09 and 15.94 mg/100 g), whereas the contents of vitamins B1, B2, B3, and B6 were rather low. Calcium, magnesium, phosphorus, potassium, and sulphur were the minerals found in the highest concentrations. Salicylic acid (201.01 and 151.95 µg/100 g) has been detected in higher amounts than other phenolic compounds. In summary, the findings of this study indicate that the both raw and roasted seeds of A. pavonina are good sources of various health-beneficial nutrients, including those reducing the negative effects of obesity.
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