The peel essential oil composition of bergamot fruit (Citrus bergamia, Risso) of Reggio Calabria (Italy): a review.

  • Giuseppina Gioffrè Dipartimento di AGRARIA. Università degli Studi Mediterranea di Reggio Calabria (Italy). Contrada Melissari, 89124 (Reggio Calabria), Italia.
  • Domenica Ursino Dipartimento di AGRARIA. Università degli Studi Mediterranea di Reggio Calabria (Italy). Contrada Melissari, 89124 (Reggio Calabria), Italia.
  • Maria Laura Concetta Labate Dipartimento di AGRARIA. Università degli Studi Mediterranea di Reggio Calabria (Italy). Contrada Melissari, 89124 (Reggio Calabria), Italia.
  • Angelo Maria Giuffrè Dipartimento di AGRARIA. Università degli Studi Mediterranea di Reggio Calabria (Italy). Contrada Melissari, 89124 (Reggio Calabria), Italia.


Bergamot (Citrus bergamia, Risso) grows exclusively in the province of Reggio Calabria (Southern Italy). Most part of this territory lies on by the Ionian or the Tyrrhenian sea, with over 700 kilometers of coastline, it has one of the highest values of heliophany in Italy and it is protected, from the Northern winds, by the Aspromonte mountain massif. Most part of the bergamot cultivation area is located between Scilla (West) and Monasterace (East) in a coastal strip with a width up to 12 km from the coast. Bergamot fruit is produced between November and March in relation to the geographical area. Over the last decades, environmental climate changes occurred also in this area. This phenomenon, together with new applied industrial processes may have influenced the bergamot essential oil composition. In addition, the modern analytical apparatus gives more detailed information. The aim of this review is to describe the evolution of studies on the volatile fraction of the bergamot peel essential oil over the years.


Abewoy, D. 2018. Review on impacts of climate change on vegetable production and its management practices. Advances in Crop Science and Technology 6:1-7. DOI: 10.4172/2329-8863.1000330
Aguado, A., J. Frıas, I. García-Tejero, F. Romero, J.L. Muriel and N. Capote. 2012. Towards the Improvement of fruit-quality parameters in Citrus under deficit irrigation strategies. ISRN Agronomy, Article ID 940896, 2012: 1-9. DOI: 10.5402/2012/940896
Ahmed, S., H.S. Rattanpal, K. Gul, R. Ahmad Dar and A. Sharma. 2019. Chemical composition, antioxidant activity and GC-MS analysis of juice and peel oil of grapefruit varieties cultivated in India. J. Integr. Agric. 18:1634–1642. DOI: 10.1016/S2095-3119(19)62602-X
Ainane, A., F. Khammour, M. Talbi, S. Charaf, M. Elabboubi, M. El Kouali, M.R. Bricha, E.H. Abba, S. Cherroud and T. Ainane. 1998. Chemical characterizations of the aromatic compositions of two citrus species: Citrus aurantium and Citrus reticulate. MOJ Drug Des. Dev. Ther. 2:79‒82. DOI: 10.15406/mojddt.2018.02.00032
AL-Jabri, N.N. and M.A. Hossain. 2018. Chemical composition and antimicrobial potency of locally grown lemon essential oil against selected bacterial strains. J. King Saud Univ. Sci. 30:14-20.
Anastasi, U., C. Santonoceto, A.M. Giuffrè, M. Sortino, F. Gresta and V. Abbate. 2010. Yield performance and grain lipid composition of standard and oleic sunflower as affected by water supply. Field Crops Res. 119:145-153. DOI: 10.1016/j.fcr.2010.07.001
Archivio Meteo di Reggio Calabria. (Accessed on 13 November 2020).
Bagetta, G., L.A. Morrone, L. Rombolà, D. Amantea, R. Russo, L. Berliocchi, S. Sakurada, T. Sakurada, D. Rotiroti and M.T. Corasaniti. 2010. Neuropharmacology of the essential oil of bergamot. Fitoterapia 81:453–461.
Belsito, E.L., C. Carbone, M.L. Di Gioia, A. Leggio, A. Liguori, F. Perri, C. Siciliano and M.C. Viscomi. 2007. Comparison of the volatile constituents in cold pressed bergamot oil and a volatile oil isolated by vacuum distillation. J. Agric. Food Chem. 55:7847-7851.
Bonaccorsi, I., P. Dugo, A. Trozzi, A. Cotroneo. and G. Dugo. 2009. Characterization of mandarin (Citrus deliciosa, Ten.) essential oil. Determination of volatiles, non-volatiles, physico-chemical indices and enantiomeric ratios. Nat. Prod. Commun. 4:1595-1600.
Bouzouita, N., El Omri, A., Kachouri, F., Casabianca, H. and Chaabouni M.M. 2010. Chemical composition of Bergamot (Citrus Bergamia Risso) essential oil obtained by hydrodistillation. J. Chem. Chem. Eng. 4: 1-3.
Branca, V. 2012. Bergamotto. In: Gli agrumi: botanica, storia e arte, alimentazione, paesaggio, coltivazione, ricerca, utilizzazione, mondo e mercato. Cultura e Cultura. 396-403.
Cartoni, G. P., G. Goretti and M.V. Russo. 1987. Capillary columns in series for the gas chromatographic analysis of essential oils. Chromatographia 23:790-795.
Celia, C., E. Trapasso, M. Locatelli, M. Navarra, C.A. Ventura, J. Wolfram, M. Carafa, M.V. Morittu, D. Britti, L. Di Marzio and D. Paolino. 2013. Anticancer activity of liposomal bergamot essential oil (BEO) on human neuroblastoma cells. Colloid Surface B. 112:548-553.
Cirmi, S., C. Bisignano, G. Mandalari and M. Navarra. 2016. Anti-infective potential of Citrus bergamia Risso et Poiteau (bergamot) derivatives: a systematic review. Phytother. Res. 30:1404–1411.
Corasaniti, M.T., J. Maiuolo, S. Maida, V. Fratto, M. Navarra, R. Russo, D. Amantea, L.A. Morrone and G. Bagetta. 2007. Cell signaling pathways in the mechanisms of neuroprotection afforded by bergamot essential oil against NMDA-induced cell death in vitro. Br. J. Pharmacol. 151:518–529.
Costa, R., P. Dugo, M. Navarra, G. Dugo. and L. Mondello. 2010. Study on the chemical composition variability of some processed bergamot (Citrus bergamia) essential oils. Flavour Frag. J. 25:4–12.
de Castro Machado, F.L., J. de Paula da Costa, A. dos Santos Teixeira and J.M. Correia da Costa. 2015. The influence of rootstock and time of harvest on the fruit quality during storage of in two grapefruit cultivars. Acta Sci. Agron. Maringá 37:341-346. DOI: 10.4025/actasciagron.v37i3.16970
Di Donna, L., L. Bartella, L. De Vero, M. Gullo, A.M. Giuffrè, C. Zappia, M. Capocasale, M. Poiana, S. D’Urso and A. Caridi. 2020. Vinegar production from Citrus bergamia by-products and preservation of bioactive compounds. Eur. Food Res. Tech. 246:1981-1990.
Di Donna, L., G. De Luca, F. Mazzotti, A. Napoli, R. Salerno, D. Taverna and G. Sindona. 2009. Statin-like principles of bergamot fruit (Citrus bergamia): isolation of 3-hydroxymethylglutaryl flavonoid glycosides. J. Nat. Prod. 72:1352–1354.
Di Donna, L., G. Gallucci, N. Malaj, E. Romano, G. Tagarelli. and G. Sindona. 2011. Recycling of industrial essential oil waste: Brutieridin and Melitidin, two anticholesterolaemic active principles from bergamot albedo. Food Chem. 125:438–441. DOI:10.1016/j.foodchem.2010.09.025
Di Donna, L., D. Taverna, F. Mazzotti, H. Benabdelkamel, M. Attya, A. Napoli and G. Sindona. 2013. Comprehensive assay of flavanones in citrus juices and beverages by UHPLC–ESI-MS/MS and derivatization chemistry. Food Chem. 141:2328–2333.
Di Giacomo, A. and M. Mincione. 1994. Gli olii essenziali agrumari in Italia. Reggio Calabria: Laruffa Editore
Dugo, G., A. Cotroneo, A. Verzera, M.G. Donato and R. Del Duce. 1991. Genuineness characters of Calabrian bergamot essential oil. Flavour Frag. J. 6:39-56.
Dugo, G., G. Lamonica and A. Cotroneo. 1987. Sulla genuinità delle essenze agrumarie. Nota XVII. La composizione della frazione volatile dell’essenza di bergamotto Calabrese. Essenze Derivati Agrumari. 57:456–534.
Dugo, G. and I. Bonaccorsi. 2013. Citrus bergamia: Bergamot and Its Derivatives. CCR Press: Boka Raton, FL, USA
Dugo, G., I. Bonaccorsi, D. Sciarrone, L. Schipilliti, M. Russo, A. Cotroneo, P. Dugo, L. Mondello and V. Raymo. 2012. Characterization of cold-pressed and processed bergamot oils by using GC-FID, GC-MS, GC-C-IRMS, enantio-GC, MDGC, HPLC and HPLC-MS-IT-TOF. J. Essent. Oil Res. 24:93-117.
Forlot, P. and P. Pevet. 2012. Bergamot (Citrus bergamia Risso et Poiteau) essential oil: Biological properties, cosmetic and medical use. A review. J. Essent. Oil Res. 24:195–201. DOI: 10.1080/10412905.2012.659527
Gionfriddo, F., M. Catalfamo, F. Siano, D. Cautela and D. Castaldo. 2003. Determinazione delle caratteristiche analitiche e della composizione enantiomerica di oli essenziali agrumari ai fini dell’accertamento della purezza e della qualità. Nota I – Essenze di arancia amara, arancia dolce e bergamotto. Essenze Derivati Agrumari 73:29–39.
Gionfriddo, F., C. Mangiola, F. Siano and D. Castaldo. 2000. Le caratteristiche dell’essenza di bergamotto prodotta nella campagna 1998/99. Essenze e Derivati Agrumari 70:133-145.
Giuffrè, A.M. 2013. Influence of cultivar and harvest year on triglyceride composition of olive oils produced in Calabria (Southern Italy). Eur. J. Lipid Sci. Tech. 115:928-934. DOI: 10.1002/ejlt.201200390
Giuffrè, A.M. 2014. Variation in triacylglycerols of olive oils produced in Calabria (Southern Italy) during olive ripening. Riv. Ital. Sostanze Gr. 91:221-240.
Giuffrè A.M. 2019. Bergamot (Citrus bergamia, Risso): ‘The effects of cultivar and harvest date on functional properties of juice and cloudy juice. Antioxidants 8:221. doi:10.3390/antiox8070221
Giuffrè, A.M. and M. Capocasale. 2015. Policosanol in Tomato Seed Oil (Solanum lycopersicum L.): the effect of cultivar. J. Oleo Sci. 64:625-631. DOI: 10.5650/jos.ess15002
Giuffrè, A.M. and R. Nobile. 2020. Citrus bergamia, Risso: the peel, the juice and the seed oil of the bergamot fruit of Reggio Calabria (South Italy). Em. J. Food Agric. 32:522-532. DOI: 10.9755/ejfa.2020.v32.i7.2128
Giuffrè, A.M., C. Zappia, M. Capocasale, M. Poiana, R. Sidari, L. Di Donna, L. Bartella, G. Sindona, G. Corradini, P. Giudici and A. Caridi. 2019. Vinegar production to valorise Citrus bergamia by-products. Eur. Food Res. Tech. 245:667-675. DOI: 10.1007/s00217-018-3189-y
González-Mas, M.C., J.L. Rambla, M.P. López-Gresa, M. Amparo Blázquez and A. Granell. 2010. Volatile compounds in citrus essential oils: a comprehensive review. Front. Plant Sci. 10, article 12. DOI: 10.3389/fpls.2019.00012
Goyal, L. and S. Kaushal. 2018. Evaluation of chemical composition and antioxidant potential of essential oil from Citrus reticulata fruit peels. Advances in Research 15:1-9.
ISTAT 2019. (Accessed: 20 May 2020).
Kirbaslar, S.I., F.G. Kirbaslar and U. Dramur. 2000. Volatiles constituents of Turkish bergamot oil. J. Essent. Oil Res. 12:216-220.
Li, Y., J. Li, L. Gao and Y. Tian. 2018. Irrigation has more influence than fertilization on leaching water quality and the potential environmental risk in excessively fertilized vegetable soils. PLoS ONE 13: article number e0204570. pone.0204570
Maggio, A., S. De Pascale, R. Paradiso and G. Barbieri. 2013. Quality and nutritional value of vegetables from organic and conventional farming. Sci. Hort. 164:532-539.
Marzocchi, S., E. Baldi, M.C. Crucitti, M. Toselli and M.F. Caboni. 2019. Effect of harvesting time on volatile compounds composition of bergamot (Citrus × Bergamia) essential oil. Flavour Frag. J. 34:426–435. DOI: 10.1002/ffj.3520
Mazza, G. 1987. Identificazioni di nuovi composti negli oli agrumari mediante GC/MS. Essenze e Derivati Agrumari. 57:19–33.
McDonnell, B. and P. Newcomb. 2019. Trial of essential oils to improve sleep for patients in cardiac rehabilitation. J. Altern. Complement. Med. 25: 1193–1199. DOI: 10.1089/acm.2019.0222
Mele, M.A., M.Z. Islam, H.M. Kang and A.M. Giuffrè. 2018. Pre-and post-harvest factors and their impact on oil composition and quality of olive fruit. Em. J. Food Agric. 30:592-603. DOI: 10.9755/ejfa.2018.v30.i7.1742
Micali, G., F. Lanuzza, P. Currò and G. Calabrò. 1990. Separation of alkanes in citrus essential oils by on-line coupled high performance liquid chromatography–high-resolution gas chromatography. J. Chromatogr. A 514:317–324.
Mondello, L., K.D. Bartle, P. Dugo, P. Gans and G. Dugo. 1994. Automated LC-GC: A powerful method for essential oils analysis. Part IV. Coupled LC-GC-MS (ITD) for bergamot oil analysis. J. Microcolumn Sep. 6:237–244.
Mondello, L., P. Dugo, A. Basile, G. Dugo and K.D. Bartle. 1995. Interactive use of linear retention indices, on polar and apolar columns, with a MS-library for reliable identification of complex mixtures. J. Microcolumn Sep. 7:581–591.
Mondello, L., P. Dugo, A. Cotroneo, A.R. Proteggente and G. Dugo. 1998. Multidimensional advanced techniques for the analysis of bergamot oil. Rivista Italiana EPPOS 20:3–27.
Moshonas, M.G.A. 1971. Analysis of carbonyl flavour constituents from grape fruit oil. J. Agric. Food Sci. 19:769-770.
Effects of bergamot essential oil and its extractive fractions
on SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cell growth
Michele Navarra
, Nadia Ferlazzo
, Santa Cirmi
, Elena Trapasso
, Placido Bramanti
Giovanni Enrico Lombardo
, Paola Lucia Minciullo
, Gioacchino Calapai
and Sebastiano Gangemi
Navarra, M., N. Ferlazzo, S. Cirmia, E. Trapasso, P. Bramanti, G.E. Lombardo, P.L. Minciullo, G. Calapai and S. Gangemi. 2015a. Effects of bergamot essential oil and its extractive fractionson SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cell growth. J. Pharm. Pharmacol. 67:1042–1053.
Navarra, M., C. Mannucci, M. Delbò and G. Calapai. 2015b. Citrus bergamia essential oil: from basic research to clinical application. Front. Pharmacol. 6:36. DOI: 10.3389/fphar.2015.00036
Nawaz, R., N.A: Abbasi, I.A. Hafiz, A. Khalid, T. Ahmad.and M. Aftab. 2019. Impact of climate change on Kinnow fruit industry of Pakistan. Agrotechnology 186:1-6. DOI: 10.35248/2168-9881.19.8.186
Nesci, F.S., N. Sapone and M. Baldari 2010. Tutela e sviluppo del bergamotto reggino.. XXXII Conferenza italiana di scienze regionali.
Otero, A., C. Goni, J.L. Jifon and J.P. Syvertsen. 2011. High temperature effects on Citrus orange leaf gas exchange, flowering, fruit quality and yield. Acta Hortic. 903:1069-1075. DOI: 10.17660/ActaHortic.2011.903.149
Palazzolo, E., V.A. Laudicina and M.A. Germanà. 2013.Current and potential use of citrus essential oils. Curr. Org. Chem. 17: 3042-3049.
Patel, R.V., L.N. Clark, M. Lebwohl and J.M. Weinberg. 2009. Treatments for psoriasis and the risk of malignancy. J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 60:1001–1017.
PDO, bergamot essential oil. file:///C:/Users/HP/Downloads/bergamotto_olii_essen%20(3).pdf
Pino, J.A. and M. Sánchez. 2000. Chemical composition of grapefruit oil concentrates. J. Essent. Oil Res. 12:167-169.
Quaggio, J.A., D. Mattos Jr, H. Cantarella, E.L.E. Almeida and S.A.B. Cardoso. 2002. Lemon yield and fruit quality affected by NPK fertilization. Sci. Hort. 96:151-162.
Russo, M., D. Serra, F. Suraci and S. Postorino. 2012. Effectiveness of electronic nose systems to detect bergamot (Citrus bergamia Risso et Poiteau) essential oil quality and genuineness.
Sawamura, M., Y. Onishi, J. Ikemoto, N. Thi Minh Tu, N. Thi Lan Phi. 2006. Characteristic odour components of bergamot (Citrus bergamia Risso) essential oil. Flavour Frag. J. 21: 609–615. DOI: 10.1002/ffj.1604
Siano, B. F. and D. Cautela. 2012. Analisi comparativa di oli essenziali agrumari italiani estratti a freddo. Industria Conserviera 2: 99-108.
Sicari, V., M.T. Pellicanò, A.M. Giuffrè, C. Zappia and M. Capocasale, M. 2016a. Bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity of citrus juices produced from varieties cultivated in Calabria. J. Food Meas. Charact. 10: 773-780. doi: 10.1007/s11694-016-9362-871.
Sicari, V., M.R. Loizzo, V. Branca and T.M. Pellicanò. 2016b. Bioactive and antioxidant activity from Citrus bergamia Risso (Bergamot) juice collected in different areas of Reggio Calabria Province, Italy. Int. J. Food Prop. 19: 1962-1971.
Sicari, V. and M. Poiana. 2017. Essential oil recovery from bergamot juice by supercritical and liquid carbon dioxide. Int. Food Res. J. 24: 2116-2121.
Strano, A., G. Falcone, B.F. Nicolò, T. Stillitano, A.I. De Luca, F.S. Nesci, F.S. and G. Gulisano. 2017. Eco-profiles and economic performances of a high-value fruit crop in southern Italy: a case study of bergamot (Citrus bergamia Risso). Agroecol. Sustain. Food Syst. 41: 1124-1145.
Sun, Y., Z. Singh, V.Y. Tokala and B. Heather. 2019. Harvest maturity stage and cold storage period influence lemon fruit quality. Sci. Hort. 249: 322-328.
Venkateshwarlu, G. and Y. Selvaraj. 2000. Changes in the peel oil composition of Kagzilime (Citrus aurantifolia Swingle) during ripening. J. Essent. Oil Res. 12:50-52.
Verzera, A., G. Lamonica, L. Mondello, A. Trozzi and G. Dugo. 1996. The composition of bergamot oil. Perfumer Flavorist 21:19–34.
Verzera, A., A. Trozzi, I. Stagno d’Alcontres, L. Mondello, G. Dugo and E. Sebastiani. 1998. The composition of the volatile fraction of Calabrian bergamot essential oil. Rivista Italiana EPPOS 25:17–38.
472 Views | 382 Downloads
How to Cite
Gioffrè, G., D. Ursino, M. L. C. Labate, and A. M. Giuffrè. “The Peel Essential Oil Composition of Bergamot Fruit (Citrus Bergamia, Risso) of Reggio Calabria (Italy): A Review.”. Emirates Journal of Food and Agriculture, Vol. 32, no. 11, Nov. 2020, pp. 835-4, doi: Accessed 8 Aug. 2022.
Review Article