Novel Food legislation and consumer acceptance - importance for the food industry
Keywords:food legislation, novel food, safety assessment, consumer acceptance
Novel foods are defined as food and food ingredients that have not been used to any significant extent in a particular country. This paper offers a brief overview of the current novel food legislation in European Union, Great Britain, USA, Australia and New Zealand, Canada and China. Prior to sale, food business operators (manufacturers or importers) are required, under different regulations and procedures, to submit information to Food Safety Authority about the product in question for a safety assessment. The approaches and specific information used to assess the safety of novel foods are outlined in national Guidelines. Generally, applicant should provide a detailed description of the novel food (identity of the novel food, production process, compositional data, proposed uses and use levels and anticipated intake of the novel food, history of use of the novel food and/or of its source, absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion, nutritional information, toxicological information and allergenicity) for the safety assessment and market approval of a novel food.
Administrative Measures for Safety Review of New Food Materials. 2017. Retrieved on October 20, 2020 from: http://lawinfochina.com/display.aspx?id=28054&lib=law.
Alisha, R. P. D. and A. Haider. 2019. “Seaweed: Nutritional and health benefits”. Pharma Innovation. 8(8): 80-83.
Asa, R. S. 2017. Malaysian halal certification: it’s religious significance and economic value. Jurnal Syariah, 25(1): 137-156.
Australia New Zealand Food Standards Code – Standard 1.5.1 – Novel foods. F2017C00324. 2017. Retrieved on July 21, 2020 from: https://www.legislation.gov.au/Series/F2015L00403.
Barrena, R., and M. Sánchez. 2012. Neophobia, personal consumer values and novel food acceptance. Food Qual. Prefer. 27(1): 72-84.
Bearth, A. and M. Siegrist. 2016. Are risk or benefit perceptions more important for public acceptance of innovative food technologies: A meta-analysis. Trends Food Sci. Technol. 49: 14-23
Belluco, S., A. Halloran and A. Ricci. 2017. New protein sources and food legislation: the case of edible insects and EU law. Food Secur. 9(4): 803-814.
Blaauboer, B. J., A. R. Boobis, B. Bradford, A. Cockburn, A. Constable, M. Daneshian, G. Edwards, J.A. Garthoff, B. Jeffery, C. Krul and J. Schuermans. 2016. Considering new methodologies in strategies for safety assessment of foods and food ingredients. Food Chem. Toxicol. 91: 19–35.
COMMISSION IMPLEMENTING REGULATION (EU) 2018/460 of 20 March 2018 authorising the placing on the market of Ecklonia cava phlorotannins as a novel food under Regulation (EU) 2015/2283 of the European Parliament and of the Council and amending Commission Implementing Regulation (EU) 2017/2470, Official Journal of the European Union, L 78/2, (2018)
COMMISSION IMPLEMENTING REGULATION (EU) 2018/462 of 20 March 2018 authorising an extension of use of L-ergothioneine as a novel food under Regulation (EU) 2015/2283 of the European Parliament and of the Council, and amending Commission Implementing Regulation (EU) 2017/2470, Official Journal of the European Union, L 78/11, (2018)
COMMISSION IMPLEMENTING REGULATION (EU) 2020/1163 of 6 August 2020 authorising the placing on the market of vitamin D2 mushroom powder as a novel food under Regulation (EU) 2015/2283 of the European Parliament and of the Council and amending Commission Implementing Regulation (EU) 2017/2470, Official Journal of the European Union, L 258/1, (2020)
COMMISSION IMPLEMENTING DECISION of 22 November 2012 authorising the placing on the market of bovine lactoferrin as a novel food ingredient under Regulation (EC) No 258/97 of the European Parliament and of the Council (FrieslandCampina), Official Journal of the European Union, L 327/52 (2012)
COMMISSION IMPLEMENTING DECISION (EU) 2016/1189 of 19 July 2016 authorising the placing on the market of UV-treated milk as a novel food under Regulation (EC) No 258/97 of the European Parliament and of the Council, Official Journal of the European Union, L 196/50 (2016)
COMMISSION IMPLEMENTING DECISION (EU) 2016/1344 of 4 August 2016 authorising the placing on the market of organic silicon (monomethylsilanetriol) as a novel food ingredient under Regulation (EC) No 258/97 of the European Parliament and of the Council, Official Journal of the European Union, L 213/12 (2016)
Connor, M. and M. Siegrist. 2016. The stability of risk and benefit perceptions: a longitudinal study assessing the perception of biotechnology. J. Risk Res. 19(4): 461-475.
de Boer, A. and A. Bast. 2018. Demanding safe foods–Safety testing under the novel food regulation (2015/2283). Trends Food Sci. Technol. 72: 125-133.
European Commission, Novel food. Retrieved on May 20, 2020 from: https://ec.europa.eu/food/safety/novel_food_en.
Food and Drug administration, Department of health and human services, subchapter b—food for human consumption, part 170—food additives. Retrieved on June 23, 2020 from: https://www.ecfr.gov/cgi-bin/text-idx?SID=2c45815199b7dc482efbfc941302bce6&mc=true&tpl=/ecfrbrowse/Title21/21cfrv3_02.tpl#0.
Guidelines for the Safety Assessment of Novel Foods. Retrieved on October 22, 2020 from: https://www.canada.ca/en/health-canada/services/food-nutrition/legislation-guidelines/guidance-documents/guidelines-safety-assessment-novel-foods-derived-plants-microorganisms/guidelines-safety-assessment-novel-foods-2006.html.
Frigerio, J., G. Agostinetto, A. Galimberti, F. De Mattia, M. Labra and A. Bruno. 2020. Tasting the differences: microbiota analysis of different insect-based novel food. Food Res. Int. 137: 109426.
Guerrero, L., M. D. Guàrdia, J. Xicola, W. Verbeke, F. Vanhonacker, S. Zakowska-Biemans, M. Sajdakowska, C. Sulmont-Rosse´, S. Issanchou, M. Contel, M. L. Scalvedi, B. S. Granli and M. Hersleth. 2009. Consumer-driven definition of traditional food products and innovation in traditional foods. A qualitative cross-cultural study. Appetite 52(2): 345-354.
Hartmann, C., J. Shi, A. Giusto and M. Siegrist. 2015. The psychology of eating insects: A cross-cultural comparison between Germany and China. Food Qual Prefer. 44: 148-156.
Kant, A. K. 2010. Dietary patterns: biomarkers and chronic disease risk. Appl. Physiol. Nutr. Metab. 35 (2): 199-206.
Magnuson, B., I. Munro, P. Abbot, N. Baldwin, R. Lopez-Garcia, K. Ly, L. McGirr, A. Roberts and S. Socolovsky. 2013. Review of the regulation and safety assessment of food substances in various countries and jurisdictions. Food Addit. Contam. Part A, 30(7): 1147-1220.
Majid, I., G. A. Nayik, S. M. Dar and V. Nanda. 2018. Novel food packaging technologies: Innovations and future prospective. J. Saudi Soc. Agric. Sci. 17(4): 454-462.
Mancini, S., R. Moruzzo, F. Riccioli and G. Paci. 2019. European consumers' readiness to adopt insects as food. A review. Food Res. Int. 122: 661-678.
Nauta, M. J., R. Andersen, K. Pilegaard, S. M. Pires, G. Ravn-Haren, I. Tetens and M. Poulsen. 2018. Meeting the challenges in the development of risk-benefit assessment of foods. Trends Food Sci. Technol. 76: 90-100.
Overview of International Regulatory Approaches – Proposal P1024. Retrieved on June 16, 2020 from: https://www.foodstandards.gov.au/code/proposals/Pages/P1024.aspx.
Novel foods authorisation guidance. Retrieved on January 04, 2021 from: https://www.food.gov.uk/business-guidance/regulated-products/novel-foods-guidance.
Parelius, J. 2017. Packing of novel food. How Can Packaging Break Barriers through Influencing Consumer Perception?. 1-11.
Popa, M. E. and A. Popa. 2012. Consumer behavior: Determinants and Trends in Novel Food Choice. In A. McElhatton, do Amaral Sobral (Eds.) (eds), Novel technologies in food science (pp. 137-156). Springer, New York, NY.
REGULATION (EC) NO 258/97 OF THE EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT AND OF THE COUNCIL of 27 January 1997 concerning novel foods and novel food ingredients, Official Journal L 043.
REGULATION (EU) 2015/2283 OF THE EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT AND OF THE COUNCIL of 25 November 2015 on novel foods, amending Regulation (EU) No 1169/2011 of the European Parliament and of the Council and repealing Regulation (EC) No 258/97 of the European Parliament and of the Council and Commission Regulation (EC) No 1852/2001, Official Journal of the European Union L 327/1.
Ruby, M. B., P. Rozin and C. Chan. 2015. Determinants of willingness to eat insect in the USA and India. J. Insects as Food Feed. 1(3): 215-225.
Santeramo F.G., D. Carlucci, B. De Devitiis, A. Seccia, A. Stasi, R. Viscecchia and G. Nardone. 2018. Emerging trends in European food, diets and food industry. Food Res. Int. 104: 39-47.
Shao, A., A. Drewnowski, D. C. Willcox, L. Krämer, C. Lausted, M. Eggersdorfer, J. Mathers, J. D. Bell, R. K. Randolph, R. Witkamp and J. C. Griffiths. 2017. Optimal nutrition and the ever-changing dietary landscape: a conference report. Eur. J. Nutr., 56 (1): 1-21.
Sidali, K. L., S. Pizzo, E. I. Garrido-Pérez and G. Schamel. 2019. Between food delicacies and food taboos: A structural equation model to assess Western students' acceptance of Amazonian insect food. Food Res. Int. 115: 83-89.
Siegrist, M. and C. Hartmann. 2020. Consumer acceptance of novel food technologies. Nat. Food. 1(6): 343-350.
Sogari, G., D. Bogueva and D. Marinova. 2019. Australian consumers’ response to insects as food. Agriculture. 9(5). 108.
Schösler, H., J. de Boer and J. Boersema. 2012. Can we cut out the meat of the dish? Constructing consumer-oriented pathways towards meat substitution. Appetite. 58: 39-47.
Tuorila, H. and C. Hartmann. 2020. Consumer responses to novel and unfamiliar foods. Curr. Opin. Food Sci. 33: 1-8.
Vanonhacker, F., E. J. van Loo, X. Gellnyck and W. Verbeke. 2013. Flemish consumer attitudes towards more sustainable food choices. Appetite. 62: 7-16.
Verbeke, W. 2015. Profiling consumers who are ready to adopt insects as a meat substitute in a Western society. Food Qual. Prefer., 39: 147-155.