Ovarian inactivity in female dromedary camels
The present study describes a clinical trial aimed at understanding the causes of ovarian inactivity among female dromedary racing camels in the United Arab Emirates. A total of 1406 female racing camels were presented to the Aljazeera Veterinary Center during a 19-month period from September 2014 to April 2016 because of repeat breeding (as identified by camel owners). Females underwent ultrasonographic examination of the reproductive tract, as well as a manual vaginal examination. Any observed reproductive tract abnormalities were record. A percentage of 23.8 of females possessed no detectable reproductive tract abnormalities (and thus were diagnosed as typical repeat breeders). Of the remaining 76.2% of females, 59% had utero-tubal abnormalities and 41% had ovarian afflictions. The incidences of ovarian and utero-tubal affections in nulliparous and parous infertile females were 66.7 % versus 33.3 % (P<0.05) and 32.2% versus 67.8% (P<0.05), respectively. Most of the ovarian affections were due to ovarian inactivity or ovario-hydrobursitis. The incidence of ovarian inactivity and ovarian hydro-bursitis in nulliparous and parous females were 57.6% versus 13.2% (P<0.05) and 5.8% versus 18.1% (P<0.05), respectively. A subset of animals lacking ovarian activity (n=81) and cyclic control females (n=24) underwent blood sample collection. Samples were analyzed for concentrations of red blood cells, hemoglobin, total protein, copper, glucose, calcium, iron, and phosphorus. Blood concentrations of glucose were higher and blood concentrations of copper were lower in females with inactive ovaries compared with cyclic females. After exclusion of animals with poor general health, the remaining females that did not have ovarian activity (n=234) were divided into one of three treatment groups: Group 1 (n=71) received a single treatment of subcutaneous copper and intramuscular multivitamins, plus daily intravenous infusion of phosphorous for 5 days and oral minerals and vitamins daily for 7 days; Group 2 (n=104) received a single intramuscular injection of 1500 IU of equine chorionic gonadotropin; Group 3 (n=64) were treated identically to group 1 females with the exception of receiving a single intramuscular injection of 1500 IU of equine chorionic gonadotropin at the end of the 7-day treatment period; A number of 20 females was a subset of Group 3 females who failed to respond to treatment – they were treated for 10 days with an intravaginal device containing progesterone followed by a single intramuscular injection of 1500 IU of equine chorionic gonadotropin given at intravaginal device removal. Group 3 females exhibited a higher ovarian response to treatment than either Group 2 or Group 1 females which were different from one another. Conception rate was lower in Group 2 females than in Group 1 and group 3 females which were not different. Embryonic mortality was higher in Group 2 than in Group 1 and 3 females which were not different.
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