Influence of extracts of different Feijoa (Acca sellowiana) leaf genotypes on the lactic fermentation performed by a mixed culture

  • Luniele Beilke Santa Catarina State University – UDESC, Department of Food Engineering and Chemical Engineering. Pinhalzinho, SC, Brazil.
  • Eduarda Heck Sumny Santa Catarina State University – UDESC, Department of Food Engineering and Chemical Engineering. Pinhalzinho, SC, Brazil.
  • Liziane Schittler Moroni Santa Catarina State University – UDESC, Department of Food Engineering and Chemical Engineering. Pinhalzinho, SC, Brazil.
  • Cassandro Vidal Talamini do Amarante Santa Catarina State University – UDESC, Department of Agronomy. Lages, SC, Brazil.
  • Aniela Pinto Kempka Santa Catarina State University – UDESC, Department of Food Engineering and Chemical Engineering. Pinhalzinho, SC, Brazil.


The objective of this research was to evaluate the influence of the addition of aqueous extracts of Feijoa leaf genotypes (Acca Selowiana) (Access 2316, Alcântara, Helena, Mattos and Nonante) on the lactic fermentation performed by Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. Bulgaricus, in MRS broth and milk. The total content of phenolic compounds (TPC), the antioxidant activity (AA) and the antimicrobial activity were determined. For the samples fermented in MRS broth, with and without the presence of extracts, the parameters analyzed were the kinetics of cell growth, TPC, AA, pH, and bacterial microscopy. For the samples fermented in whole milk, the parameters analyzed were pH, titratable acidity, moisture, ash, protein, total solids, and sensory profile. There was inhibition of the mixed culture’s growth in the dilution of 80% of the extracts (TPC 75.82 - 110.90 mg EAG g-1), the other experiments having been performed with TPC below 70 mg EAG g-1. The kinetics of growth was 16 hours. For the fermented samples, there were changes to the TPC and antioxidant activity, except for the one fermented with the Access 2316 extract, for which activity remained the same. The microscopy showed predominance of Streptococcus thermophilus. In the fermented milks, pH decreased, and acidity increased, and the sensory profile was modified by the addition of the extracts. The addition of Feijoa leaf extracts in fermentation enriches the fermented product with phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity and can be a viable alternative for the provision of bioactive compounds.


Agil, R., A. Gaget, J. Gliwa, T. J. Avis, W. G. Willmore and F. Hosseinian. 2013. Lentils enhance probiotic growth in yogurt and provide added benefit of antioxidant protection. LWT - Food Sci Technol. 50(1):45-49.
Amarante, C. V. T. and K. L. Santos. 2011. Feijoa (Acca sellowiana). Rev. Bras. Frutic. 33(1):1-2.
Amarante, C.V.T., A. G. D. Souza, T. D. T. Benincá and C. A. Steffens. 2017. Phenolic content and antioxidant activity of fruit of Brazilian genotypes of Feijoa. Pesq. Agropec. Bras. 52(12):1223-1230.
Amarante, C.V.T., C. A. Steffens, T. D. T. Benincá, C. M. Hackbarth and K. L. Santos. 2013. Qualidade e potencial de conservação pós-colheita de frutos em cultivares brasileiras de Feijoa. Rev. Bras. Frutic. 35(4):990-999.
AOAC, 2000. Official methods of analysis of AOAC International. Maryland.
AOAC, 2016. Official methods oficial analysis: of AOAC internacional. Maryland.
Aoyama, H., H. Sakagami and T. Hatano. 2018. Three new flavonoids, proanthocyanidin, and accompanying phenolic constituents from Feijoa sellowiana. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 82(1):31-41.
Azevedo, P. O. de S., B. Aliak, A. A. Casazza, J. G. LeBlanc, P. Perego and R. P. de S. Oliveira. 2018. Production of fermented skim milk supplemented with different grape pomace extracts: Effect on viability and acidification performance of probiotic culture. PharmaNutrition. 6(2):64–68.
Barba, F. J., Z. Zhu, M. Koubaa, A. S. Sant'Ana and V. Orlien. 2016. Green alternative methods for the extraction of antioxidant bioactive compounds from winery wastes and byproducts: A review. Trends Food Sci Technol. 49:96-109.
Belous, O., M. Omarov and Z. Omarova. 2014. Chemical composition of fruits of a Feijoa (F. Sellowiana) in the conditions of subtropics of Russia. Potravinarstvo, 8:119–123.
Benicá, T. D. T. 2014. Pós-colheita de Goiabeira Serrana: Enzimas Ligadas ao Escurecimento de Polpa, Revestimentos Comestíveis e Compostos Bioativos. (Masters dissertation), Santa Catarina State University, Lages.
Bergy, D. H. 1974. Bergy’s: manual of determinative bacteriology. William and Wilking: Baltimore.
Bertolino, M., S. Belviso, B. Dal Bello, D. Ghirardello, M. Giordano, L. Rolle, V. Gerbi and G. Zeppa. 2014. Influence of the addition of different hazelnut skins on the physicochemical, antioxidant, polyphenol and sensory properties of yogurt. LWT - Food Sci Technol. 63 (2):1145–1154.
Beyhan, Ö., M. Elmastas and F. Gedikli. 2010. Total phenolic compounds and antioxidant capacity of leaf, dry fruit and fresh fruit of Feijoa (Acca sellowiana, Myrtaceae). J Med Plants Res. 4(11):1065–1072.
Bezerra, J. R. M. V, M. Rigo, M. dos S. Raymundo and R. G. Bastos. 2011. Introdução a tecnologia de leites. Unicentro:Guarapuava.
Bonoli, M., V. Verardo, E. Marconi and M. F. Caboni. 2004. Antioxidant phenols in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) flour: Comparative spectrophotometric study among extraction methods of free and bound phenolic compounds. J Agric Food Chem. 52(16):5195-5200.
Brand-Willians, W., M. E. Cuvelier and C. Berset. 1995. Use of a free radical method to evaluate antioxidant activity. LWT - Food Sci Technol. 28(1):25-30.
Brasil, 2007. Regulamento técnico de identidade e qualidade de leites fermentados. Brasil: Diário Oficial da União, Retrieved on January, 2019 from:
Brasil. 2003. Oficializa métodos analíticos oficiais para análises microbiológicas para controle de produtos de origem animal e agua. Brasil: Diário Oficial da União. Retrieved on January, 2019 from:,665.html
Chavan, M., Y. Gat, M. Harmalkar and R. Waghmare. 2018. Development of non-dairy fermented probiotic drink based on germinated and ungerminated cereals and legume. LWT - Food Sci Technol. 91:339–344.
Ducroquet, J-P. H. J. and E. R. Hickel. 1991. Fenologia da goiabeira serrana (Feijoa sellowiana Berg) no Alto Vale do Rio do Peixe. Rev. Bras. Frutic. 13(3):313-321.
Ducroquet, J-P. H. J., E. da C. Nunes, M. P. Guerra and R. O. Nodari. 2008. Novas cultivares brasileiras de goiabeira serrana: SCS 414- Mattos e SCS 415-Nonante. Agropecuária Catarinense. 21(2):77-80.
Ebrahimzadeh, M. A., S. J. Hosseinimehr, A. Hamidinia and M. Jafari. 2008. Antioxidant and free radical scavenging activity of Feijoa sellowiana fruits peel and leaves. Pharmacologyonline. 1:7-14.
Eça, R. and F. Implvo. 2006. Péptidos bioactivos das proteínas do leite com actividade reguladora da tensão arterial. Alimentação humana. 12(3):108- 119.
El-Shenawi, S. M., M. S. Marzouk, R. A. E. Dib, H. E. A. Elyazed, N. M. Shaffie and F. A. Moharram. 2008. Polyphenols and biological activities of Feijoa sellowiana leaves and twigs. Rev. Latinoamer. Quím. 36(3):103-120.
Filannino, P., R. Di Cagno and M. Gobetti. 2018. Metabolic and functional paths of lactic acid bacteria in plant foods: get out of the labyrinth. Cur Opin Biotechnol. 49:64–72.
Heleno, S. A., A. Martins, M. J. Queiroz and I. C. Ferreira. 2015. Bioactivity of phenolic acids: metabolites versus parent compounds: A review. Food Chem. 173:501-513.
Heredia-Castro, P. Y., A. Hérnández-Mendoza, A. F. González-Córdova and B. Vallejo-Cordoba. 2017. Bacteriocinas de bacterias ácido-lácticas: mecanismos de acción y actividad antimicrobiana contra patógenos en quesos. Interciencia. 42(6):340-346.
Isobe, Y., Y. Kase, M. Narita and T. Komiya. 2003. Antioxidative activity of tropical fruit, Feijoa sellowiana Berg. Journal of Home Economics of Japan. 54(11):945-949.
Johnson, M. H., A. Lucius, T. Meyer and E. G. Mejia. 2011. Cultivar evaluation and effect of fermentation on antioxidant capacity and in vitro inhibition of α-amylase and α-glucosidase by highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corombosum). J Agric Food Chem. 59:8923-2930.
Kaprasob, R., O. Kerdchoechuen, N. Laohakunjit, D. Sarkar and K. Shetty. 2017. Fermentation-based biotransformation of bioactive phenolics and volatile compounds from cashew apple juice by select lactic acid bacteria. Process Biochem. 59(B):141-149.
Kemperman, R. A., S. Bolca, L. C. Roger and E. E. Vaughan. 2010. Novel approaches for analyzing gut microbes and dietary polyphenols: challenges and opportunities. Microbiology. 156:224–3231.
Kempka, A. P., R. L. Krüger, E. Valduga, M. Di Luccio, H. Treichel, R. Cansian and D. Oliveira. 2008. Formulação de bebida láctea fermentada sabor pêssego utilizando substratos alternativos e cultura probiótica. Food Sci. Technol (Campinas). 28:170-177.
Kemsawasd, V. and P. Chaikham. 2018. Survival of probiotics in soyoghurt plus mulberry (c.v. Chiang Mai 60) leaf extract during refrigerated storage and their ability to tolerate gastrointestinal transit. LWT - Food Sci Technol. 93:94-101.
Lamothe, S., N. Azimy, L. Bazinet, C. Couillard and M. Britten. 2014. Interaction of green tea polyphenols with dairy matrices in a simulated gastrointestinal environment. Food Funct. 5:2621–2631.
Larrauri, J. A., P. Rupérez and F. Saura-Calixto. 1997. Effect of drying temperature on the stability of polyphenols and antioxidant activity of red grape pomace peels. J. Agric. Food Chem. 45(4):1390–1393.
Lima, I. F. P., J. D. D. Lindner, V. T. Soccol, J. L. Parada and C. R. Soccol. 2012. Development of an innovative nutraceutical fermented beverage from herbal mate (Ilex paraguariensis A.St.-Hil.) extract. Int J Mol Sci. 13(1):788-800.
Limón, R. I., E. Peñas, M. I. Torino, C. Martínez-Villaluenga, M. Dueñas and J. Frias. 2015. Fermentation enhances the content of bioactive compounds in kidney bean extracts. Food Chem. 172:343–352.
López, T., A. Prado-Barragán, G. V. Nevárez-Moorillón, J. C. Contreras, R. Rodríguez and C. N. Aguilar. 2013. Enhancement of antioxidant capacity of coffee pulp extracts by solid-state lactic fermentation. CyTA - Journal of Food. 11(4):359–365.
Lou, Z., H. Wang, S. Rao, J. Sun, C. Ma and J. Li. 2012. p-Coumaric acid kills bacteria through dual damage mechanisms. Food Control. 25(2):550–554.
Macedo, G. A., G. M. Pastore, H. H. Sato and Y. G. K. Park. 2005. Bioquímica experimental de alimentos. Livraria Varela: São Paulo.
Manabe, M. and Y. Isobe. 2005. Suppressing effects of Feijoa sellowiana Berg (Feijoa) on cytokine secretion by intestinal epithelium. Food Sci Technol Res. 11(1):71-76.
Mandalari, G., C. Bisignano, A. Filocamo, S. Chessa, M. Sarò, G. Torre, R. M. Faulks and P. Dugo. 2013. Bioaccessibility of pistachio polyphenols, xanthophylls, and tocopherols during simulated human digestion. Nutrition. 29(1):338–344.
Martins, S., S. I. Mussatto, G. Martínez-Avila, J. Montañez-Saenz, C. N. Aguilar and J. A. Teixeira. 2011. Bioactive phenolic compounds: production and extraction by solid state fermentation. A review. Biotechnol Adv. 29(3):365–373.
Masisi, K., T. Beta and M. H. Moghadasian. 2016. Antioxidant properties of diverse cereal grains: A review on in vitro and in vivo studies. Food Chem. 196:90-97.
Mittler, R., S. Vanderauwera, N. Suzuki, G. A. D. Miller, V. B. Tognetti, K. Vandepoele and F. Van Breusegem. 2011. ROS signaling: the new wave?. Trends Plant Sci. 16(6):300-309.
Mokhtari, M., M. D. Jackson, A. S. Brown, D. F. Ackerley, N. J. Ritson, R. A., Keyzers and A. B. Munkacsi. 2018. Bioactivity-guided metabolite profiling of Feijoa (Acca sellowiana) cultivars identifies 4-cyclopentene-1,3-dione as a potent antifungal inhibitor of chitin synthesis. J. Agric. Food Chem. 66(22):5531–5539.
Monforte, M. T., F. Lanuzza, F., Mondello, C. Naccari, S. Pergolizzi and E. M. Galati. 2014. Phytochemical composition and gastroprotective effect of Feijoa sellowiana Berg fruits from Sicily. J Coast Life Med. 2(1):14-21.
Moraes, P. M., V. R. Loreiro, P. M. Padilha, R. C. Neves, M. A. D. Saleh, F. A. dos Santos and F. A. Silva. 2009. Determinação de fósforo biodisponível em rações de peixes utilizando extração assistida por ultrassom e espectrofotometria no visível. Quím Nova. 32:923-927, 2009.
Moretto, S. P., E. S. Nodari and R. O. Nodari. 2014. A introdução e os usos da Feijoa ou Goiabeira-serrana (Acca sellowiana): a perspectiva da história ambiental. Journal of Social, Technological and Environmental Science. 3(2):67-79.
Mosbah, H., H. Louati, M. A. Boujniha, H. Chahdoura, M. Snoussi, G. Flamini, R. Ascrizzi, A. Bouslema, L. Achour and B. Selmi. 2018. Phytochemical characterization, antioxidant, antimicrobial and pharmacological activities of Feijoa sellowiana leaves growing in Tunisia. Ind Crops Prod. 112:521–531.
Mousavi, M., M. Bimakr, S. M Ghoreishi and A. Ganjloo. 2018. Supercritical carbon dioxide extraction of bioactive compounds from Feijoa (Feijoa sellowiana) leaves. Nutr Food Sci Res. 5(3):23-31.
Muniandy, P., A. B. Shori and A. S. Baba. 2016. Influence of green, white and black tea addition on the antioxidant activity of probiotic yogurt during refrigerated storage. Food Packaging Shelf. 8:1-8.
Nazck, M. and F. Shahidi. 2004. Extraction and analysis of phenolics in food. J Chromatog A. 1054:95-111.
Ojewole, J. A. 2006. Anti inflammatory and analgesic effects of Psidium guajava linn. (Myrtaceae) leaf, aqueous extract in rats and mice. Methods Find Exp Clin Pharmacol. 28(7):441–446.
Ostrosky, E. A., M. K. Mizumoto, M. E. L. Lima, T. M., Kaneko, S. O. Nishikawa and B. R. Freitas. 2008. Methods for evaluation of the antimicrobial activity and determination of Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) of plant extracts. Rev. Bras. Farmacogn. 18(2):301-307.
Pacheco-Ordaz, R., A. Wall‐Medrano, M. G. Goni, G. Ramos‐Clamont‐Montfort, J. F. Ayala‐Zavala and G. A. González‐Aguilar. 2018. Effect of phenolic compounds on the growth of selected probiotic and pathogenic bacteria. Lett Appl Microbiol. 66(1):25–31.
Parvez, S., K. A. Malik, S. Ah Kang and H. Y. Kim. 2006. Probiotics and their fermented food products are beneficial for health. J Appl Microbiol. 100(6):1171-1185.
Pereira, A. L. F., W. S. C. Feitosa, V. K. G. Abreu, T. O. Lemos, W. F. Gomes, N. Narain and S. Rodrigues. 2017. Impact of fermentation conditions on the quality and sensory properties of a probiotic cupuassu (Theobroma grandiflorum) beverage. Food Res Int. 100:603-611.
Poffo, F. and M. A. C. Silva. 2011. Taxonomic and physiological characterization of lactic acid bacteria isolated from seafood. Food Sci. Technol (Campinas). 31(2):303-307.
Poodi, Y., M. Bimakr, A. Ganjloo and S. Zarringhalami. 2018. Intensification of bioactive compounds extraction from Feijoa (Feijoa sellowiana Berg.) leaves using ultrasonic waves. Food Bioprod Process. 108:37-50.
Raven, P. H., R. F. Evert and S. E. Eichhorn. 2007. Biologia vegetal. Guanabara Koogan: Rio de janeiro.
Rodríguez-Roque, M. J., M. A. Rojas-Graü, P. Elez-Martínez and O. Martín-Belloso. 2013. Soymilk phenolic compounds, isoflavones and antioxidant activity as affected by in vitro gastrointestinal digestion. Food Chem. 136(1):206-212.
Romero-Rodriguez, M. A., M. L. Vazquez-Oderiz, J. Lopez-Hernandez and J. Simal-Lozano. 1994. Composition of babaco, Feijoa, passionfruit and tamarillo produced in Galicia (North-t Spain). Food Chem. 49(1):23-27.
Rosenthal, I. 1991. Milk and dairy products: properties and processing. VCH:Weinheim.
Rozès, N., L. Arola and A. Bordons. 2003. Effect of phenolic compounds on the co-metabolism of citric acid and sugars by Oenococcus oeni from wine. Lett Appl Microbiol. 36:337-341.
Ruberto, G. and C. Tringali. 2004. Secondary metabolites from the leaves of Feijoa sellowiana Berg. Phytochem. 65(21):2947-2951.
Saad, S. M. I. 2006. Probióticos e prebióticos: o estado da arte. Rev. Bras. Cienc. Farm. 42(1):1-16.
Sánchez-Maldonado, A. F., A. Schieber, and M. G. Gänzle. 2011. Structure-function relationships of the antibacterial activity of phenolic acids and their metabolism by lactic acid bacteria. J Appl Microbiol. 111(5):1176–1184.
Santos, K. L., M. N. Ciotta and R. O. Nodari. 2017. Melhoramento genético da Feijoa (Acca sellowiana) em Santa Catarina. Agropecuária Catarinense. 30(1):40-42.
Septembre-Malaterre, A., F. Remize and P. Poucheret. 2018. Fruits and vegetables, as a source of nutritional compounds and phytochemicals: changes in bioactive compounds during lactic fermentation. Food Res Int. 104:86-99.
Settanni, L. and G. Moschetti. 2010. Non-starter lactic acid bacteria used to improve cheese quality and provide health benefits. Food Microbiol. 27(6):691-697.
Souza, A. G. de. 2015. Caracterização Física, Química, Nutricional e Antioxidante em Frutos e Flores de Genótipos de Goiabeira-Serrana [Acca sellowiana (berg.) Burret]. (Doctoral dissertation), Santa Catarina State University, Lages
Souza, V. C. and H. Lorenzi, 2005. Botânica sistemática: guia ilustrado para identificação das famílias de angiospermas da flora brasileira, baseado na APG II. Instituto Plantarum: Nova Odessa.
Sun-Waterhouse, D., J. Zhou and S. S. Wadhawa. 2012. Effects of adding apple polyphenols before and after fermentation on the properties of drinking yoghurt. Food Bioprocess Tech. 5(7):2674–2686.
Sun-Waterhouse, D. W. Wang, G. I. N. Waterhouse and S. S. Wadhwa. 2013. Utilisation potential of Feijoa fruit wastes as ingredients for functional foods. Food Bioproc Tech. 6:3441–3455.
Taylor, P. W. 2013. Alternative natural sources for a new generation of antibacterial agents. Int J Antimicrob Agents. 42:195–201.
Torino, M. I., R. I. Limón, C. Martínez-Villaluenga, S. Mäkinen, A. Pihlanto, C. Vidal-Valverde and J. Frias. 2013. Antioxidant and antihypertensive properties of liquid and solid state fermented. Food Chem. 136:1030–1037.
Valero-Cases, E., N. Nuncio-Jáuregui and M. J. Frutos. 2017. Influence of fermentation with different lactic acid bacteria and in vitro digestion on the biotransformation of phenolic compounds in fermented pomegranate juices. J Agric Food Chem. 65(31):6488-6496.
Vital, A. C. P., P. A. Goto, L. N. Hanai, S. M. Gomes-da-Costa, B. A. A. Filho, C. V. Nakamura, and P. T. Matumoto-Pintro. 2015. Microbiological, functional and rheological properties of low fat yogurt supplemented with Pleurotus ostreatus aqueous extract. LWT - Food Sci Technol. 64:1028-1035.
Vodnar, D. C., A. Paucean, F. V. Dulf and C. Socaciu. 2010. HPLC characterization of lactic acid formation and FTIR fingerprint of probiotic bacteria during fermentation processes. Notulae Botanicae Horti Agrobotanici Cluj-Napoca. 38:109–113.
Walstra, P., J. T. M. Wouters and T. J. Geurts. 2006. Dairy science and technology. CRC Press: New York.
Weston, R. J. 2010. Bioactive products from fruit of the Feijoa (Feijoa sellowiana, Myrtaceae): A review. Food Chem. 121(1):923-926.
Yin, H., Y. Deng, H. Wang, W. Liu, X. Zhuang and W. Chu. 2015. Tea polyphenols as an antivirulence compound disrupt quorum-sensing regulated pathogenicity of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Sci Rep. 5 (16158):1-11.
53 Views | 94 Downloads
How to Cite
Beilke, L., E. H. Sumny, L. S. Moroni, C. V. T. do Amarante, and A. P. Kempka. “Influence of Extracts of Different Feijoa (Acca Sellowiana) Leaf Genotypes on the Lactic Fermentation Performed by a Mixed Culture”. Emirates Journal of Food and Agriculture, Vol. 33, no. 4, May 2021, pp. 328-41, doi: Accessed 28 July 2021.
Research Article