Biosecurity assessment in relation to the occurrence of some coccidian parasites in poultry farms, with in vitro evaluation of Psidium gujava as coccidia sporulation inhibitor.
The present study was performed to assess the correlation between biosecurity compliance measures and the prevalence of Eimeria and Cryptosporidium species in commercial based (CBF) and house hold (HHF) poultry farms, in Delta region Egypt. Additionally, this study aims to evaluate the effect of Psidium gujava on sporulation of Eimeria oocysts in bird environment (the chicken litter or manure). This study was conducted in 74 poultry farms, from which, 74 litter samples were collected for detection of both species. Additionally, 74 water samples were collected and examined for the presence of Cryptosporium spp. Concurrently a series of experiments were done separately to evaluate the efficacy of Psidium gujava. The results showed that the overall prevalence of Eimeria spp. was 48.6% with a higher prevalence in CBF (53.3%), while that of Cryptosporium spp. was 54% with the highest prevalence in HHF (62.5%). Application of farms disinfection was insignificantly affected the prevalence of both protozoan parasites. Disposal of farm wastes as land fertilizers significantly decreased the prevalence of both protozoan parasites, in contrast disposing of wastes to fish farms was associated with the highest prevalence of Eimeria spp. The highest prevalence of Cryptosporium spp. was recorded in farms that dispose dead birds to domestic rubbish. Rodent control and All in all-out system application were significantly decreased the Cryptosporium spp. prevalence (P=0.012, and 0.025 respectively). Finally, the highest sporulation inhibition percentage (SP% of 86.4) was obtained by using crude watery extract (10%) at a concentration of 2.5ml /ml after 24hr contact time.
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