Quality formation of germination brown rice under microwave drying: from GABA content to color value

  • Sun Peng 1. Jiamusi Institute of Agricultural Modernization of Heilongjiang Academy of Agricultural Machinery Engineering Science, Jiamusi, 154000, China
  • Xu Caihua 1. Jiamusi Institute of Agricultural Modernization of Heilongjiang Academy of Agricultural Machinery Engineering Science, Jiamusi, 154000, China
  • Chen Wudong 1. Jiamusi Institute of Agricultural Modernization of Heilongjiang Academy of Agricultural Machinery Engineering Science, Jiamusi, 154000, China
  • Bi Jifu Jiamusi Institute of Agricultural Modernization of Heilongjiang Academy of Agricultural Machinery Engineering Science, Jiamusi, 154000, China
  • Han Changsheng Jiamusi Institute of Agricultural Modernization of Heilongjiang Academy of Agricultural Machinery Engineering Science, Jiamusi, 154000, China
  • Tong Tong 1. Jiamusi Institute of Agricultural Modernization of Heilongjiang Academy of Agricultural Machinery Engineering Science, Jiamusi, 154000, China
  • Liu Chenghai 2. College of Engineering, Northeast Agricultural University, Harbin, 150030, China
  • Xu ` Feng 1. Jiamusi Institute of Agricultural Modernization of Heilongjiang Academy of Agricultural Machinery Engineering Science, Jiamusi, 154000, China

Abstract

In order to improve the final quality of germination brown rice (GBR), the changes of GBR in Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and color are investigated under microwave drying conditions. Results indicate that Microwave drying process may improve GABA in GBR due to microwave volumetric heating inducing the glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) activity; and the dried GBR with golden appearance under the microwave intensity of 2.75 W/g and the apparent velocity of 2.50 m/s considering the drying efficiency and quality of dried GBR. In this study, microwave drying conditions not only improve the drying efficiency of GBR, but also improve the appearance and color of GBR after drying, reduce GABA degradation and control the generation of burst rate.

References

Chungcharoen, T., S. Prachayawarakorn, P. Tungtrakul and S. Soponronnarit. 2015. Effects of germination time and drying temperature on drying characteristics and quality of germinated paddy. Food Bioprod. Process. 94: 707-716.
Chungcharoen, T., S. Prachayawarakorn, P. Tungtrakul and S. Soponronnarit. 2014. Effects of Germination Process and Drying Temperature on Gamma-Aminobutyric Acid (GABA) and Starch Digestibility of Germinated Brown Rice. Drying Technol. 32: 742-753.
Cornejo, F., P. J. Caceres, C. Martínez-Villaluenga, C. M. Rosell and J. Frias. 2015. Effects of germination on the nutritive value and bioactive compounds of brown rice breads. Food Chem. 173: 298-304.
Gu, Z. X. and Z. H., Jiang. 2002. Formation Mechanism and Accumulation Technique of γ-Aminobutyric Acid of Food Raw Materials. Food and Fermentation Industries. 28: 65-69.
Han, S. 2013. Experimental Study on Technology for Drying and Milling of Controlling Moisture of Germinated Brown Rice. (Master Thesis), Northeast Agricultural University, Harbin.
Huang, M., D. Y. Liu, X. Sun and K. J. Chen. 2012. Determining the optimal drying conditions for GBR with specific reference to quality, drying rate, and energy consumption. Transactions of the ASABE. 55: 1829-1836.
Ito, S. and Y. Ishikawa. 2004. Marketing of value-added rice product in Japan: Germinated brown Rice and bread. FAO International Rice Year. 2004 Symposium (pp. 889-892). Rome, Italy.
Li, K., G. Hu, S. Yu, Q. Tang and J. Liu. 2018. Effect of the iron biofortification on enzymes activities and antioxidant properties in germinated brown rice. J. Food Meas. Charact. 12: 789-799.
Liu, L., S. J. Ji, D. H. Tan and D. H. Jiang. 2013. Radical change of Millard reaction by using electron spin resonance spectroscopy. Transactions of the Chinese Society of Agricultural Engineering. 32: 280-286.
Liu, M. H. 2000. Study on Simulation and Control Mechanism of Rice Drying Quality. (Doctoral These), China Agricultural University, Beijing.
Ng, L., S. Huang, Y. Chen and C. Su. 2013. Changes of tocopherols, tocotrienols, gammaoryzanol, and gamma-aminobutyric acid levels in the germinated brown rice of pigmented and nonpigmented cultivars. J. Agric. Food Chem. 61: 12604-12611.
Pang, Y., P. Chen, D. Zeng and Z., Li. 2015. Effects of different drying methods on quality of germinated brown rice. Guangdong Agricultural Sciences. 42: 80-83.
Peron, D. V., S. Fraga and F. Antelo. 2017. Thermal degradation kinetics of anthocyanins extracted from juçara (Euterpe edulis Martius) and “Italia” grapes (Vitis vinifera L.), and the effect of heating on the antioxidant capacity. Food Chem. 232: 836-840.
Qi, X., L. Cheng, X. Li, D. Zhang, G. Wu, H. Zhang and Y. Wang. 2019. Effect of cooking methods on solubility and nutrition quality of brown rice powder. Food Chem. 274: 444-451.
Shen L. Y. 2020. Study on Microwave Drying and Quality Change Mechanism of Germinated Brown Rice. (Doctoral Thesis), Northeast Agricultural University, Harbin.
Shen, L. Y., L. Wang, C. Y. Zheng, C. H. Liu, Y. Zhu, H. Liu, C. Liu, Y. K. Shi, X. Z. Zheng and H. Xu. 2020. Continuous microwave drying of germinated brown rice: Effects of drying conditions on fissure and color, and modelling of moisture content and stress inside kernel. Dry Technol. 39: 1-29.
Shen, L. Y.,Y. Zhu,C. H. Liu,L. Wang,M. Kamruzzaman,C. Liu and X. Z. Zheng. 2021. Microwave drying of germinated brown rice: Correlation of drying characteristics with the final quality. Innovative Food Science and Emerging Technologies. 70: 1-15.
Shen,L. Y., Y. Zhu,L. Wang,C. H. Liu,C. Liu,and X. Z. Zheng. 2019. Improvement of cooking quality of germinated brown rice attributed to the fissures caused by microwave drying. J Food Sci Tech. 56: 2737-2749.
Sun, J. 2016. Study on the Drying Mechanism and Dryer Design of Germinated Brown Rice under Microwave Drying Conditions. (Doctoral Thesis), Northeast Agricultural University, Harbin.
Ti, H., R. Zhang, M. Zhang, Q. Li, Z. Wei, Y. Zhang and Y. Ma. 2014. Dynamic changes in the free and bound phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity of brown rice at different germination stages. Food Chem. 161: 337-344.
Wang, A. H. 2012. Optimization Preparation Process of Germinated Brown Rice of High Level of GABA and Preliminary Study of GABA in Extraction and Purification. (Master Thesis), Central South University of Forestry and Technology, Zhuzhou.
Wunthunyarat, W., E. Wong, J. Jinn, Y. Wang and A. Mauromoustakos. 2019. Effect of Germination Conditions and Mashing Temperature on the Amylolytic Enzyme Activity and Degree of Starch Saccharification of Brown Rice Cultivars During Syrup Production. J. Food Sci. 84: 2785-2794.
Wunthunyarat, W., H. Seo and Y. Wang. 2020. Effects of germination conditions on enzyme activities and starch hydrolysis of long‐grain brown rice in relation to flour properties and bread qualities. J. Food Sci. 85: 349-357.
Xu, C., L. Zhang, S. Zhao, S. Xiong, M. Xie and P. Zhang. 2016. Effects of Hot Air Drying and Microwave Drying on Characteristics and Quality of Germinated Brown Rice. Modern Food Science and Technology. 32: 256-260,135.
Yu, J. 2016. Study on Microwave Drying Characteristics and Technologies of Germinated Brown Rice. (Master Thesis), Northeast Agricultural University, Harbin.
Zhang Q., N. Liu, S. Wang, S. S. Wang, Y. Liu and H. P. Lan. 2019. Effects of cyclic cellulase conditioning and germination treatment on the γ-aminobutyric acid content and the cooking and taste qualities of germinated brown rice. Food Chem. 289: 232-239.
Zhang, Y. Z. 2016. Quality Nondestructive Detection and Evaluation Research of Germinated Brown Rice Based on NIS. (Master Thesis), Northeast Agricultural University, Harbin.
Zhang, Y. Z., J. Yu, L. Wang, Y. Y. Wang, C. H. Liu and X. Z. Zheng. 2016. Determination of Quality in Germinated Brown Rice Based on Near-infrared Spectroscopy. Journal of Agricultural Mechanization Research. 38: 141-145.
Zheng, X. Z., J. Yu, Y. Z. Zhang, Y. Y. Wang and C. H. Liu. 2015. Study on drying characteristics and quality of germinated brown rice under microwave drying conditions. Journal of Northeast Agricultural University. 46: 86-94.
Zheng, Y. M., M. C. Wang and P. Hua. 2005. A Study on Technology for Microwave Drying of Germinated Brown Rice. Cereal & Feed Industry. 1-2.
Statistics